Time Perception in First Year Undergraduates: Correlation with Stress, Anxiety and Depression

Koebeli, C., Edginton, T.L., Morgan, K.D. and Boubert, L. 2023. Time Perception in First Year Undergraduates: Correlation with Stress, Anxiety and Depression. 17th International Technology, Education and Development Conference. Valencia, Spain 06 - 08 Mar 2023 IATED Digital Library. https://doi.org/10.21125/inted.2023.1559

TitleTime Perception in First Year Undergraduates: Correlation with Stress, Anxiety and Depression
AuthorsKoebeli, C., Edginton, T.L., Morgan, K.D. and Boubert, L.
TypeConference paper
Abstract

The transition from school to university is a period of intense change for young adults. For many, it means moving away from home for the first time, learning to manage many aspects of independent living that they’ve never had to do before, alongside integrating to a new social circle of friends and adapting to new more independent ways of studying. More students than ever are reporting symptoms of depression and anxiety, which is directly linked to their coping skills.

One area often reported to cause difficulty is time management, which relies heavily on a person being able to make realistic cognitive judgements about time passing, which is crucial in planning study time and in particular working to assessment deadlines. Time management relies heavily on a person being able to make realistic cognitive judgements about time, an ability which can be measured experimentally. It is known that perception is different in people with depression and anxiety compared to healthy participants so here, we asked whether the cognitive ability to perceive temporal order, temporal bisection and prospective movement might be different in those students who are experiencing high stress levels. The level of stress experienced by a student was measured using the Undergraduate Student Questionnaire (Crandall et al, 1992), anxiety and depression were measured using the State Trait Anxiety Text and the Becks Depression Inventory, respectively.

The study revealed a correlation between scores on the undergraduate stress questionnaire and prospective time estimations, which suggests that under stressful situations, students underestimate the time tasks will take, which could in turn impact their studies.

KeywordsTime perception
stress
USQ
transition
first year undergraduates
Year2023
Conference17th International Technology, Education and Development Conference
PublisherIATED Digital Library
IATED Academy
Accepted author manuscript
Publication dates
Published2023
ISSN2340-1079
Book titleINTED2023 Proceedings
ISBN9788409490264
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.21125/inted.2023.1559
Web address (URL) of conference proceedingshttps://library.iated.org/view/KOEBELI2023TIM
Web address (URL)https://library.iated.org/view/KOEBELI2023TIM

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Edginton, T.L., Iddon, J.L., Loveday, C., Pickard, J. and Morgan, R. 2009. Cognitive and psychological sequelae of hydrocephalus and spina bifida: correlating subjective data and objective neuropsychological data to establish insight and inform clinical intervention and guidelines. Cerebrospinal Fluid Research. 6 (1), p. S7 S7 . https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-8454-6-S2-S7

Selective deficits in semantic verbal fluency in patients with a first affective episode with psychotic symptoms and a positive history of mania
Kravariti, E., Reichenberg, A., Morgan, K.D., Dazzan, P., Morgan, C., Zanelli, J., Lappin, J.M., Doody, G.A., Harrison, G., Jones, P.B., Murray, R.M. and Fearon, P. 2009. Selective deficits in semantic verbal fluency in patients with a first affective episode with psychotic symptoms and a positive history of mania. Bipolar Disorders. 11 (3), pp. 323-329. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-5618.2009.00673.x

Gender differences in the association between childhood abuse and psychosis
Fisher, H.L., Morgan, C., Dazzan, P., Craig, T.K.J., Morgan, K.D., Hutchinson, G., Jones, P.B., Doody, G.A., Pariante, C.M., McGuffin, P., Murray, R.M., Leff, J. and Fearon, P. 2009. Gender differences in the association between childhood abuse and psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry. 194, pp. 319-325. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.107.047985

Cumulative social disadvantage, ethnicity and first-episode psychosis: a case-control study
Morgan, C., Kirkbride, J.B., Hutchinson, G., Craig, T.K.J., Morgan, K.D., Dazzan, P., Boydell, J., Doody, G.A., Jones, P.B., Murray, R.M., Leff, J. and Fearon, P. 2008. Cumulative social disadvantage, ethnicity and first-episode psychosis: a case-control study. Psychological Medicine. 38 (12), pp. 1701-1715. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291708004534

Unemployment, social isolation, achievement–expectation mismatch and psychosis: findings from the ÆSOP Study
Reininghaus, U.A., Morgan, C., Simpson, J., Dazzan, P., Morgan, K.D., Doody, G.A., Bhugra, D., Leff, J., Jones, P.B., Murray, R.M., Fearon, P. and Craig, T.K.J. 2008. Unemployment, social isolation, achievement–expectation mismatch and psychosis: findings from the ÆSOP Study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 43 (9), pp. 743-751. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-008-0359-4

Sexually dimorphic changes in the amygdala in relation to delusional beliefs in first episode psychosis
Gibbs, A.A., Dazzan, P., Morgan, K.D., Naudts, K.H., Morgan, C., Hutchinson, G., Fearon, P., Leff, J., Murray, R.M. and David, A.S. 2008. Sexually dimorphic changes in the amygdala in relation to delusional beliefs in first episode psychosis. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 42 (11), pp. 913-919. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2007.11.002

Neurological abnormalities and cognitive ability in first-episode psychosis
Dazzan, P., Lloyd, T., Morgan, K.D., Zanelli, J., Morgan, C., Orr, K.G., Hutchinson, G., Fearon, P., Allin, M., Rifkin, L., McGuire, P.K., Doody, G.A., Holloway, J., Leff, J., Harrison, G., Jones, P.B. and Murray, R.M. 2008. Neurological abnormalities and cognitive ability in first-episode psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry. 193 (3), pp. 197-202. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.107.045450

Self-harm in first-episode psychosis
Harvey, S.B., Dean, K., Morgan, C., Walsh, E., Demjaha, A., Dazzan, P. and Morgan, K.D. 2008. Self-harm in first-episode psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry. 192 (3), pp. 178-184. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.107.037192

Perceptions of disadvantage, ethnicity and psychosis
Cooper, C., Morgan, C., Byrne, M., Dazzan, P., Morgan, K.D., Hutchinson, G., Doody, G.A., Harrison, G., Leff, J., Jones, P.B., Ismail, K., Murray, R.M., Bebbington, P. and Fearon, P. 2008. Perceptions of disadvantage, ethnicity and psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry. 192 (3), pp. 185-190. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.107.042291

Executive functions are impaired in patients with Parkinson's disease with visual hallucinations
Barnes, J. and Boubert, L. 2008. Executive functions are impaired in patients with Parkinson's disease with visual hallucinations. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 79 (2), pp. 190-192. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2007.116202

Minor physical anomalies in patients with first-episode psychosis: their frequency and diagnostic specificity
Lloyd, T., Dazzan, P., Dean, K., Park, S.B.G., Fearon, P., Doody, G.A., Tarrant, J., Morgan, K.D., Morgan, C., Hutchinson, G., Leff, J., Harrison, G., Murray, R.M. and Jones, P.B. 2008. Minor physical anomalies in patients with first-episode psychosis: their frequency and diagnostic specificity. Psychological Medicine. 38 (1), pp. 71-77. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291707001158

Grey matter abnormalties in first episode schizophrenia and affective psychosis
Morgan, K.D., Dazzan, P., Orr, K.G., Hutchinson, G., Chitnis, X., Suckling, J., Lythgoe, D., Pollock, S.J., Rossell, S., Shapleske, J., Fearon, P., Morgan, C., David, A.S., McGuire, P.K., Jones, P.B., Leff, J. and Murray, R.M. 2007. Grey matter abnormalties in first episode schizophrenia and affective psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry. 191 (Supple), pp. s111-s116. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.191.51.s111

Visual memory transformations in dyslexia
Barnes, J., Hinkley, L., Masters, S. and Boubert, L. 2007. Visual memory transformations in dyslexia. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 104, pp. 881-891.

An investigation of the effects of nicotine on executive processes using a virtual reality environment
Edginton, T.L., Nikolla, D. and Jansari, A.S. 2007. An investigation of the effects of nicotine on executive processes using a virtual reality environment. 2007 Psychobiology 22nd Annual Scientific Meeting. Windermere, UK 03 - 05 Sep 2007

An investigation of a non-selective imagery impairment on strategic and autobiographical memory processes following posterior frontal lobe craniotomy
Edginton, T.L. 2007. An investigation of a non-selective imagery impairment on strategic and autobiographical memory processes following posterior frontal lobe craniotomy. International Neuropsychological Society Meeting. Bilbao, Spain Jul 2007

Minor physical anomalies across ethnic groups in a first episode psychosis sample
Dean, K., Dazzan, P., Lloyd, T., Morgan, C., Morgan, K.D., Doody, G.A., Hutchinson, G., Orr, K.G., Jones, P.B., Murray, R.M. and Fearon, P. 2007. Minor physical anomalies across ethnic groups in a first episode psychosis sample. Schizophrenia Research. 89 (1-3), pp. 86-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2006.08.019

Clinical and social determinants of duration of untreated psychosis in the AESOP first-episode psychosis study
Morgan, C., Abdul-Al, R., Lappin, J.M., Jones, P.B., Fearon, P., Leese, M., Croudace, T., Morgan, K.D., Dazzan, P., Craig, T.K.J., Leff, J. and Murray, R.M. 2006. Clinical and social determinants of duration of untreated psychosis in the AESOP first-episode psychosis study. British Journal of Psychiatry. 189 (5), pp. 446-452. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.106.021303

Incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in ethnic minority groups: results from the MRC AESOP Study
Fearon, P., Kirkbride, J.B., Morgan, C., Dazzan, P., Morgan, K.D., Lloyd, T., Hutchinson, G., Tarrant, J., Fung, W.L.A., Holloway, J., Mallett, R.M., Harrison, G., Leff, J., Jones, P.B. and Murray, R.M. 2006. Incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in ethnic minority groups: results from the MRC AESOP Study. Psychological Medicine. 36 (11), pp. 1541-1550. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291706008774

Grey matter correlates of minor physical anomalies in the AESOP first-episode psychosis study
Dean, K., Fearon, P., Morgan, K.D., Hutchinson, G., Orr, K.G., Chitnis, X., Suckling, J., Mallett, R.M., Leff, J., Jones, P.B., Murray, R.M. and Dazzan, P. 2006. Grey matter correlates of minor physical anomalies in the AESOP first-episode psychosis study. British Journal of Psychiatry. 189 (3), pp. 221-228. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.105.016337

Insight in psychosis and neuropsychological function: meta-analysis
Aleman, A., Agrawal, N., Morgan, K.D. and David, A.S. 2006. Insight in psychosis and neuropsychological function: meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry. 189 (3), pp. 204-212. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.189.3.204

The structural brain correlates of neurological soft signs in healthy individuals
Dazzan, P., Morgan, K.D., Chitnis, X., Suckling, J., Morgan, C., Fearon, P., McGuire, P.K., Jones, P.B., Leff, J. and Murray, R.M. 2006. The structural brain correlates of neurological soft signs in healthy individuals. Cerebral Cortex. 16 (8), pp. 1225-1231. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhj063

Insight and cognition
Morgan, K.D. 2006. Insight and cognition. in: Morgan, K.D., David, A.S., Murray, R.M. and Eberhard, J. (ed.) Cognition and schizophrenia: improving real life function Cambridge, UK Cambridge Medical Communication. pp. 37-43

Increased pituitary volume in antipsychotic-free and antipsychotic-treated patients of the sop first-onset psychosis study
Pariante, C.M., Dazzan, P., Danese, A., Morgan, K.D., Brudaglio, F., Morgan, C., Fearon, P., Orr, K.G., Hutchinson, G., Pantelis, C., Velakoulis, D., Jones, P.B., Leff, J. and Murray, R.M. 2005. Increased pituitary volume in antipsychotic-free and antipsychotic-treated patients of the sop first-onset psychosis study. Neuropsychopharmacology. 30 (10), pp. 1923-1931. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1300766

Preferences of healthy men for two different endocrine treatment options offered for locally advanced prostate cancer
Jenkins, V.A., Followfield, L., Edginton, T.L., Payne, H. and Hamilton, E. 2005. Preferences of healthy men for two different endocrine treatment options offered for locally advanced prostate cancer. Current Medical Research and Opinion. 21 (9), pp. 1329-1336. https://doi.org/10.1185/030079905X59058

Does neoadjuvant hormone therapy for early prostate cancer affect cognition? Results from a pilot study
Jenkins, V.A., Bloomfield, D.J., Shilling, V.M. and Edginton, T.L. 2005. Does neoadjuvant hormone therapy for early prostate cancer affect cognition? Results from a pilot study. BJU international. 96 (1), pp. 48-53. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2005.05565.x

Pathways to care and ethnicity. 2: source of referral and help-seeking: report from the AESOP study
Morgan, C., Mallett, R.M., Hutchinson, G., Bagalkote, H., Morgan, K.D., Fearon, P., Dazzan, P., Boydell, J., McKenzie, K., Harrison, G., Murray, R.M., Jones, P.B., Craig, T.K.J. and Leff, J. 2005. Pathways to care and ethnicity. 2: source of referral and help-seeking: report from the AESOP study. British Journal of Psychiatry. 186 (4), pp. 290-296.

Pathways to care and ethnicity. 1: sample characteristics and compulsory admission: report from the ÆSOP Study
Morgan, C., Mallett, R.M., Hutchinson, G., Bagalkote, H., Morgan, K.D., Fearon, P., Dazzan, P., Boydell, J., McKenzie, K., Harrison, G., Murray, R.M., Jones, P.B., Craig, T.K.J. and Leff, J. 2005. Pathways to care and ethnicity. 1: sample characteristics and compulsory admission: report from the ÆSOP Study. British Journal of Psychiatry. 186 (4), pp. 281-289.

Different effects of typical and atypical antipsychotics on grey matter in first episode psychosis: the ÆSOP Study
Dazzan, P., Morgan, K.D., Orr, K.G., Hutchinson, G., Chitnis, X., Suckling, J., Fearon, P., McGuire, P.K., Mallett, R.M., Jones, P.B., Leff, J. and Murray, R.M. 2005. Different effects of typical and atypical antipsychotics on grey matter in first episode psychosis: the ÆSOP Study. Neuropsychopharmacology. 30 (4), pp. 765-774. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1300603

Incidence of bipolar affective disorder in three UK cities: results from the ÆSOP Study
Lloyd, T., Kennedy, N., Fearon, P., Kirkbride, J.B., Mallett, R.M., Leff, J., Holloway, J., Harrison, G., Dazzan, P., Morgan, K.D., Murray, R.M. and Jones, P.B. 2005. Incidence of bipolar affective disorder in three UK cities: results from the ÆSOP Study. British Journal of Psychiatry. 186 (2), pp. 126-131.

A study of hippocampal shape anomaly in schizophrenia and in families multiply affected by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder
Connor, S.E.J., Ng, V., McDonald, C., Schulze, K., Morgan, K.D., Dazzan, P. and Murray, R.M. 2004. A study of hippocampal shape anomaly in schizophrenia and in families multiply affected by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Neuroradiology. 46 (7), pp. 523-534. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00234-004-1224-0

Neuropsychological studies of insight in psychosis
Morgan, K.D. and David, A.S. 2004. Neuropsychological studies of insight in psychosis. in: Amador, X.S. and David, A.S. (ed.) Insight and psychosis: awareness of illness in schizophrenia and related disorders. 2nd edition Oxford, UK Oxford University Press.

Perception of psychosis in patients
Morgan, K.D. 2004. Perception of psychosis in patients. Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale. 13 (4), pp. 222-226.

The cognitive effects of reversible hormone therapy for prostate cancer
Edginton, T.L. 2004. The cognitive effects of reversible hormone therapy for prostate cancer. 7th World Congress of Psycho-Oncology. Copenhagen, Denmark 25 - 28 Aug 2004

Normal cerebral asymmetry in familial and non-familial schizophrenic probands and their unaffected relatives
Chapple, B., Grech, A., Sham, P., Toulopoulou, T., Walshe, M., Schulze, K., Morgan, K.D., Murray, R.M. and McDonald, C. 2004. Normal cerebral asymmetry in familial and non-familial schizophrenic probands and their unaffected relatives. Schizophrenia Research. 67 (1), pp. 33-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-9964(03)00095-1

Separate and combined effects of scopolamine and nicotine on retrieval-induced forgetting
Edginton, T.L. and Rusted, J.M. 2003. Separate and combined effects of scopolamine and nicotine on retrieval-induced forgetting. Psychopharmacology. 170 (4), pp. 351-357. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-003-1563-2

Reality monitoring and visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease
Barnes, J., Boubert, L., Harris, J.R., Lee, A. and David, A.S. 2003. Reality monitoring and visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease. Neuropsychologia. 41 (5), pp. 565-574. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0028-3932(02)00182-3

The structural brain correlates of neurological soft signs in ÆSOP first-episode psychoses study
Dazzan, P., Morgan, K.D., Orr, K.G., Hutchinson, G., Chitnis, X., Suckling, J., Fearon, P., Salvo, J., McGuire, P.K., Mallett, R.M., Jones, P.B., Leff, J. and Murray, R.M. 2003. The structural brain correlates of neurological soft signs in ÆSOP first-episode psychoses study. Brain. 127 (1), pp. 143-153. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awh015

A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of overt letter verbal fluency using a clustered acquisition sequence: greater anterior cingulate activation with increased task demand
Fu, C.H.Y., Morgan, K.D., Suckling, J., Williams, S.C.R., Andrew, C., Vythelingum, G.N. and McGuire, P.K. 2002. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of overt letter verbal fluency using a clustered acquisition sequence: greater anterior cingulate activation with increased task demand. NeuroImage. 17 (2), pp. 871-879. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1053-8119(02)91189-4

Efficient remembering: nicotine improves suppression of irrelevancies
Edginton, T.L. and Rusted, J.M. 2002. Efficient remembering: nicotine improves suppression of irrelevancies. Neurobiology of Aging. 23 (Supplement 1), p. S123.

Effects of nicotine on inhibitory processes in human memory
Edginton, T.L. 2001. Effects of nicotine on inhibitory processes in human memory. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 15 (Supplement), p. A55.

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