A review of minimum U-values for Lebanon and the associated effect of Internal gains

Saleh, P., Schiano-Phan, R. and Gleeson, C.P. 2017. A review of minimum U-values for Lebanon and the associated effect of Internal gains . Design to Thrive: PLEA 2017 Conference. Edingurgh 02 - 05 Jul 2017 NCEUB 2017.

TitleA review of minimum U-values for Lebanon and the associated effect of Internal gains
AuthorsSaleh, P., Schiano-Phan, R. and Gleeson, C.P.
TypeConference paper
Abstract

Since 2005 various publications have proposed different U-values to be used in Lebanon to reduce the buildings’ energy demand, creating confusion and a lack of specific and authoritative recommendation. Moreover, the various thermal performance guidelines are not easily comparable due to unexplained basic assumptions and guidance on the calculation of internal gains.
This study has two interrelated objectives: a) test the most appropriate U-values for the climate of Beirut, b) study the consequence of increased internal gains have on the cooling energy load in low U-value construction. The paper does dynamic thermal simulation of the various U-values from local and international sources. The analysis allows the comparison and ranking of these various U-values based on the overall yearly energy demand for cooling. This is followed by a sensitivity study where a range of increased internal heat gains are inputted onto a low and a high U-value model to demonstrate that an increase in internal gains results in both models having the same cooling loads. Low U-values under this scenario due not result in a lower annual energy load.
The study concludes that, although finding the appropriate U-value for hot climates seems uncontroversial, the effect of internal gains must be taken into consideration. Hence the importance of having consistent and harmonized national and regional benchmark values for U-values and internal gains.

KeywordsInternal gains, U-Values, Hot Climate, Lebanon
Year2017
ConferenceDesign to Thrive: PLEA 2017 Conference
PublisherNCEUB 2017
Accepted author manuscriptPLEA2017_Final_Paper_1.pdf
Book titleProceedings of the 33rd PLEA International Conference, Design to Thrive, Edinburgh, 2nd-5th July 2017
ISBN9780992895754
Web address (URL) of conference proceedingshttps://plea2017.net/#programmes-container
Web address (URL)https://plea2017.net

Related outputs

Green Transitions in the Built Environment: Europe
Clarke, L., Sahin-Dikmen, M. and Gleeson, C.P. 2018. Green Transitions in the Built Environment: Europe. Adapting Canadian Work and Workplaces to Respond to Climate Change: Canada in International Perspective.

Research pro-design in environmental architecture, pedagogical approaches for quality and performance: the case of the Latitudes Global Studio Project
Schiano-Phan, R., Soares Goncalves, J., Lau, B., Kronka-Mulfarth, R., Pimentel Pizzarro, E. and Vallejo, J. 2018. Research pro-design in environmental architecture, pedagogical approaches for quality and performance: the case of the Latitudes Global Studio Project. Passive Low Energy Architecture Conference 2018. Hong Kong 10 - 12 Dec 2018

Passive Cooling Applicability Mapping: A tool for designers
Vallejo, J., Ford, B., Schiano-Phan, R. and Aparicio-Ruiz, P. 2018. Passive Cooling Applicability Mapping: A tool for designers. Passive Low Energy Architecture Conference 2018. Hong Kong 10 - 12 Dec 2018

Influence on Learning Efficiency from natural light in Educational Environment
Chen, Y., Lau, B., Blyth, A., Schiano-Phan, R. and Yi-Kai, J. 2018. Influence on Learning Efficiency from natural light in Educational Environment. Passive Low Energy Architecture Conference 2018. Hong Kong 10 - 12 Dec 2018

“Green Pockets” as Microclimate Modifiers in UK Urban Schools
Bajcer, U., Schiano-Phan, R., Ben Dayan, M. and Kerrane, A. 2018. “Green Pockets” as Microclimate Modifiers in UK Urban Schools. Passive Low Energy Architecture Conference 2018. Hong Kong 10 - 12 Dec 2018

Sustainable Architecture and Social Engagement for Flooding and Drought Resilience
Puchol-Salort, Jose and Schiano-Phan, R. 2018. Sustainable Architecture and Social Engagement for Flooding and Drought Resilience. Passive Low Energy Architecture Conference 2018. Hong Kong 10 - 12 Dec 2018

Spatial Delight and Environmental Performance of Modernist Architecture in London – Golden Lane Estate
Schiano-Phan, R., Lau, B., Pourel, D. and Khan, S. 2018. Spatial Delight and Environmental Performance of Modernist Architecture in London – Golden Lane Estate. Future Cities and Environment. 4 (1), p. 16. doi:10.5334/fce.47

The Rasmaska project: temperature behaviour of three, full scale test cells in hot Mediterranean summer: non-insulated double masonry wall and different insulation locations
Saleh, P., Schiano-Phan, R. and Gleeson, C.P. 2018. The Rasmaska project: temperature behaviour of three, full scale test cells in hot Mediterranean summer: non-insulated double masonry wall and different insulation locations. Energy and Buildings. 178, pp. 304-317. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2018.08.025

Climatic applicability of downdraught evaporative cooling in the United States of America
Aparicio-Ruiz, P., Schiano-Phan, R. and Salmeron-Lissen, J.M. 2018. Climatic applicability of downdraught evaporative cooling in the United States of America. Building and Environment. 136, pp. 162-176. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.03.039

What heavy weight buildings in hot climates can tell us about their thermal performance
Saleh, P., Schiano-Phan, R. and Gleeson, C.P. 2017. What heavy weight buildings in hot climates can tell us about their thermal performance. Design to Thrive. Edinburgh 02 - 05 Jul 2017 NCEUB 2017.

Resilient Urban Edges: Adaptive and Mitigative Design in Chennai
Enos, V. and Schiano-Phan, R. 2017. Resilient Urban Edges: Adaptive and Mitigative Design in Chennai. Brotas, L. and Nicol, F. (ed.) Passive Low Energy Architecture Conference 2017, Design to Thrive. Edinburgh 02 - 05 Jul 2017 NCEUB 2017.

Sustainable Retrofit for Flooding Resilience
Schiano-Phan, R. and Puchol-Salort, J. 2017. Sustainable Retrofit for Flooding Resilience. Brotas, L. and Nicol, F. (ed.) Passive Low Energy Architecture Conference 2017, Design to Thrive. Edinburgh 02 - 05 Jul 2017 NCEUB 2017.

The investigation of Spatial Delight and Environmental Performance of Modernist Architecture in London – Golden Lane Estate
Schiano-Phan, R., Lau, B., Pourel, D., Golzari, N. and Lee, S-K. 2017. The investigation of Spatial Delight and Environmental Performance of Modernist Architecture in London – Golden Lane Estate . 16th International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies . Bologna 17 - 20 Jul 2017

Women and Low Energy Construction in Europe: a new opportunity?
Clarke, L., Gleeson, C.P. and Wall, C. 2017. Women and Low Energy Construction in Europe: a new opportunity? in: Griffin Cohen, M. (ed.) Climate Change and Gender in Rich Countries: Work, Public Policy and Action Earthscan. pp. 55-69

The addition of heat pump electricity load profiles to GB electricity demand: Evidence from a heat pump field trial
Love, J., Smith, A.Z.P., Watson, S., Oikonomou, E., Summerfield, A., Gleeson, C.P., Biddulph, P., Chiu, L.F., Wingfield, J., Martin, C., Stone, A. and Lowe, R. 2017. The addition of heat pump electricity load profiles to GB electricity demand: Evidence from a heat pump field trial. Applied Energy. 204, pp. 332-342. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.07.026

What kind of expertise is needed for low energy construction
Clarke, L., Gleeson, C.P. and Winch, C. 2017. What kind of expertise is needed for low energy construction. Construction Management and Econonomics. 35 (3), pp. 78-89. doi:10.1080/01446193.2016.1248988

Reassessing the Numerous Proposed and Existing U-values for Lebanon
Saleh, P. 2016. Reassessing the Numerous Proposed and Existing U-values for Lebanon. Second International Conference on Efficient Building Design: Materials and HVAC Equipment Technologies. Beirut, Lebanon 22 - 23 Sep 2016

The Mitigative Potential of Urban Environments and their Microclimates
Schiano-Phan, R. and Weber, F. 2016. The Mitigative Potential of Urban Environments and their Microclimates. Caring for Our Common Home: Sustainable, Healthy, Just Cities & Settlements. Rome 13 - 17 Jun 2016 International Making Cities Livable.

Detailed analysis of data from heat pumps installed via the Renewable Heat Premium Payment Scheme
Gleeson, C.P., Summerfield, A., Biddulph, P., Stone, A., Grainger, C., Agnolucci, P., Oikonomou, E. and Lowe, R. 2016. Detailed analysis of data from heat pumps installed via the Renewable Heat Premium Payment Scheme. London Department of Energy and Climate Change.

Labour and Low Energy Buildings: the energy performance gap as Social Practice
Gleeson, C.P. 2016. Labour and Low Energy Buildings: the energy performance gap as Social Practice. 34th International Labour Process Conference. Berlin 04 - 06 Apr 2016

Residential heat pump installations: the role of vocational education and training
Gleeson, C.P. 2016. Residential heat pump installations: the role of vocational education and training. Building Research & Information . 44 (4), pp. 394-406. doi:10.1080/09613218.2015.1082701

Sustainable Conversion of historic buildings in Cuba: the case of Santo Domingo de Atares Castle, Havana
Quesada Campana, T. and Schiano-Phan, R. 2015. Sustainable Conversion of historic buildings in Cuba: the case of Santo Domingo de Atares Castle, Havana. BioCultural. Limassol, Cyprus 11 - 12 Dec 2015 Biocultural Research Programme, University of Cyprus.

The Mitigative Potential of Urban Environments and Their Microclimates
Schiano-Phan, R., Weber, F. and Santamouris, M. 2015. The Mitigative Potential of Urban Environments and Their Microclimates. Buildings. 5 (3), pp. 783-801. doi:10.3390/buildings5030783

Just transition (Editorial)
Gleeson, C.P. and Calvert, J. 2015. Just transition (Editorial). CLR News. (4), pp. 4-9.

Climate change and the power of naming - Anthropocene versus Capitalocene (Review essay on 'The Capitalocene' Part I and Part II , by Jason W Moore)
Gleeson, C.P. 2015. Climate change and the power of naming - Anthropocene versus Capitalocene (Review essay on 'The Capitalocene' Part I and Part II , by Jason W Moore). CLR News. (4), pp. 60-65.

On the energy [R]evolution: a sustainable world energy outlook 2015
Gleeson, C.P. 2015. On the energy [R]evolution: a sustainable world energy outlook 2015. CLR News. (4), pp. 30-38.

Pioneering innovation: application of passive downdraught evaporative cooling in US buildings. Lessons from post occupancy evaluation studies
Schiano-Phan, R. 2015. Pioneering innovation: application of passive downdraught evaporative cooling in US buildings. Lessons from post occupancy evaluation studies. in: Goncalves, J. and Bode, K. (ed.) O Edificio Ambiental Sao Paulo, Brazil Oficina de Texto.

Work in a warming World (W3): Labour, climate change, and social struggle (Report)
Gleeson, C.P. 2014. Work in a warming World (W3): Labour, climate change, and social struggle (Report). CLR News. (1), pp. 31-37.

Closing the gap between design and performance: the current debate
Gleeson, C.P. 2014. Closing the gap between design and performance: the current debate. CLR News. (1), pp. 6-14.

Understanding the field performance of domestic heat pumps: an analysis of recent residential heat pump field trials and training needs
Gleeson, C.P. 2014. Understanding the field performance of domestic heat pumps: an analysis of recent residential heat pump field trials and training needs. PhD thesis University College London Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, Energy Institute

Cool city: cooling strategies for the urban context
Schiano-Phan, R. 2014. Cool city: cooling strategies for the urban context. in: Rodriguez, J. and Yannas, S. (ed.) Collective housing and sustainability Madrid ETSAM.

Meta-analysis of European heat pump field trial efficiencies
Gleeson, C.P. and Lowe, R. 2013. Meta-analysis of European heat pump field trial efficiencies. Energy and Buildings. 66, pp. 637-647. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.07.064

The neglected role of labour in low energy construction: ‘thermal literacy’ and the difference between design intention and performance
Gleeson, C.P. and Clarke, L. 2013. The neglected role of labour in low energy construction: ‘thermal literacy’ and the difference between design intention and performance. Work in a Warming World: Labour, Climate Change, and Social Struggle. Toronto, Canada 29 Nov - 01 Dec 2013

Post-occupancy evaluation of non-domestic buildings using passive downdraught evaporative cooling in south-west USA
Schiano-Phan, R. 2012. Post-occupancy evaluation of non-domestic buildings using passive downdraught evaporative cooling in south-west USA. Architectural Science Review. 55 (4), pp. 320-340. doi:10.1080/00038628.2012.725535

European retrofit network: retrofitting evaluation methodology report
Gleeson, C.P., Yang, J. and Lloyd-Jones, T. 2011. European retrofit network: retrofitting evaluation methodology report. London, UK University of Westminster.

'What do we need to know? The state of Canadian research on work, employment and climate change' (Lipsig-Mumme book review)
Gleeson, C.P. 2011. 'What do we need to know? The state of Canadian research on work, employment and climate change' (Lipsig-Mumme book review). CLR News. (4), pp. 74-80.

Retrofitting housing (a review of the European Retrofit Network Retrofitting Evaluation Methodology Report)
Gleeson, C.P. 2011. Retrofitting housing (a review of the European Retrofit Network Retrofitting Evaluation Methodology Report). CLR News. (4), pp. 54-63.

Introduction in 'Climate change and construction labour'
Gleeson, C.P. and Clarke, L. 2011. Introduction in 'Climate change and construction labour'. CLR News. (4), pp. 6-7.

On Olivier & Simmond’s 'Less is More: Energy Security after Oil’ (Review Essay)
Gleeson, C.P. 2011. On Olivier & Simmond’s 'Less is More: Energy Security after Oil’ (Review Essay). CLR News. (4), pp. 68-73.

Environmental retrofit: building integrated passive cooling in housing
Schiano-Phan, R. 2010. Environmental retrofit: building integrated passive cooling in housing. Architectural Research Quarterly. 14 (2), pp. 139-151. doi:10.1017/S1359135510000758

Keep your cool with ceramics
Schiano-Phan, R. 2009. Keep your cool with ceramics. Clay Technology. Oct-Nov, pp. 10-12.

Post occupancy evaluation of non-domestic buildings using downdraught cooling: case studies in the US
Schiano-Phan, R. and Ford, B. 2008. Post occupancy evaluation of non-domestic buildings using downdraught cooling: case studies in the US. Plea 2008: The 25th Conference on Passive & Low Energy Architecture. Dublin, Ireland 22-24 October 2008

Cooling without air-conditioning
Schiano-Phan, R. 2008. Cooling without air-conditioning. Intelligent Glass Solutions. 4, pp. 106-108.

Building services and the code for sustainable homes
Gleeson, C.P. 2008. Building services and the code for sustainable homes. in: COBRA 2008: the construction and building research conference of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, held at Dublin Institute of Technology, 4-5 September 2008 London RICS.

The Passivhaus standard in European warm climates: design guidelines for comfortable low energy homes
Schiano-Phan, R., Ford, B. and Zhongcheng, D. 2007. The Passivhaus standard in European warm climates: design guidelines for comfortable low energy homes. Passive-On IEE project.

Taking environmental engineering out of the laboratory
Gleeson, C.P. and Burke, A. 2007. Taking environmental engineering out of the laboratory. Built Environment Education Annual Conference (BEECON 2007). University of Westminster, London 12 - 13 Sep 2007

Double skin facades: improving performance and reducing costs
Schiano-Phan, R. 2005. Double skin facades: improving performance and reducing costs. Plea 2005: The 22nd Conference on Passive & Low Energy Architecture. Beirut, Lebanon 13-16 November 2005

The development of passive downdraught evaporative cooling systems using porous ceramic evaporators and their application in residential buildings
Schiano-Phan, R. 2004. The development of passive downdraught evaporative cooling systems using porous ceramic evaporators and their application in residential buildings. PhD thesis Architectural Association School of Architecture, validated by the Open University

The application of downdraught evaporative cooling systems in non-domestic buildings. A case study: the Green Office, Tehran
Schiano-Phan, R. and Ford, B. 2004. The application of downdraught evaporative cooling systems in non-domestic buildings. A case study: the Green Office, Tehran. IFCO Conference. Tehran, Iran 15-18 February 2004

The development of passive downdraught evaporative cooling systems using porous ceramic evaporators and their application in residential buildings
Schiano-Phan, R. 2004. The development of passive downdraught evaporative cooling systems using porous ceramic evaporators and their application in residential buildings. in: Plea 2004: the 21st conference on passive & low energy architecture, Eindhoven, Netherlands, 19-22 September 2004 PLEA.

Cooling systems: principles and practice
Schiano-Phan, R. 2004. Cooling systems: principles and practice. 2nd Summer Academy of Mediterranean Solar Architecture (SAMSA). Rome, Italy 26 July – 6 August 2004

Evaporative cooling using porous ceramic evaporators: product development and generic building integration
Schiano-Phan, R. and Ford, B. 2003. Evaporative cooling using porous ceramic evaporators: product development and generic building integration. The Plan: architecture & technologies in detail. 4, pp. 95-98.

Evaporative cooling using porous ceramic evaporators: product development and generic building integration
Schiano-Phan, R. and Ford, B. 2003. Evaporative cooling using porous ceramic evaporators: product development and generic building integration. in: PLEA 2003: the 20th conference on passive & low energy architecture, Santiago, Chile, 9 – 12 November 2003 PLEA.

Passive evaporative cooling using porous ceramic evaporators
Schiano-Phan, R. 2001. Passive evaporative cooling using porous ceramic evaporators. Clima 2000. Naples, Italy 15-18 September 2001

Thermal stability and energy efficiency in wine storage spaces: Ridge Winery, Lytton Springs, Healdsburg, California
Schiano-Phan, R. and Diaz, C. 2000. Thermal stability and energy efficiency in wine storage spaces: Ridge Winery, Lytton Springs, Healdsburg, California. in: World renewable energy congress VI, Brighton, 1-7 July 2000 Oxford Pergamon.

Specification of automatic vent opening devices for natural ventilation
Schiano-Phan, R., Bordass, W. and Ford, B. 2000. Specification of automatic vent opening devices for natural ventilation. Usable Buildings Trust.

The eco-oriented project for the wine industry
Schiano-Phan, R. 1998. The eco-oriented project for the wine industry. WREN Congress V. Florence, Italy September 1998

Permalink - https://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/item/q4191/a-review-of-minimum-u-values-for-lebanon-and-the-associated-effect-of-internal-gains


Share this
Tweet
Email