The purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) is a marine invertebrate of the class Echinoidea that serves as an important research model for developmental biology, cell biology, and immunology, as well as for understanding regenerative responses and ageing. Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are calcium-dependent enzymes that mediate post-translational protein deimination/citrullination. These alterations affect protein function and may also play roles in protein moonlighting. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound vesicles that are released from cells as a means of cellular communication. Their cargo includes a range of protein and RNA molecules. EVs can be isolated from many body fluids and are therefore used as biomarkers in physiological and pathological responses. This study assessed EVs present in the coelomic fluid of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), and identified both total protein cargo as well as the deiminated protein cargo. Deiminated proteins in coelomic fluid EVs were compared with the total deiminated proteins identified in coelomic fluid to assess putative differences in deiminated protein targets. Functional protein network analysis for deiminated proteins revealed pathways for immune, metabolic, and gene regulatory functions within both total coelomic fluid and EVs. Key KEGG and GO pathways for total EV protein cargo furthermore showed some overlap with deimination-enriched pathways. The findings presented in this study add to current understanding of how post-translational deimination may shape immunity across the phylogeny tree, including possibly via PAD activity from microbiota symbionts. Furthermore, this study provides a platform for research on EVs as biomarkers in sea urchin models.