The cortisol awakening response predicts a same-day index of executive function in healthy young adults

Law, R., Evans, P., Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F., Loveday, C. and Clow, A. 2020. The cortisol awakening response predicts a same-day index of executive function in healthy young adults. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 158, pp. 27-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2020.08.004

TitleThe cortisol awakening response predicts a same-day index of executive function in healthy young adults
TypeJournal article
AuthorsLaw, R., Evans, P., Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F., Loveday, C. and Clow, A.
Abstract

The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is associated with various aspects of cognition, including executive function, in older adult and clinical samples. However, the association between these variables in the healthy functioning population is not well understood due to the limited number of appropriately controlled studies. This study explored the association between the CAR and a set shifting index of executive function in 55 (44 females) healthy participants aged 20.2 ± 3.0 years. Notoriously, assessment of the CAR from self-collected saliva samples within the domestic setting is subject to sample timing error, so electronic monitoring of both awakening and sampling times were employed. Participants attended the laboratory in the afternoon of CAR assessment for testing on the Attention Switching Task of the CANTAB neuropsychological testing battery. A positive association was found between CAR magnitude and attention-switching performance in the afternoon of the same day. This was independent of known relevant CAR covariates, but only evident in CAR data collected without delay exceeding 8 min post-awakening. These findings offer insight into a potential role for the CAR in modulating cognitive functions associated with the pre-frontal cortex.

KeywordsCAR
Saliva
Pre-frontal cortex
Attention-switching task
Executive function
Cognition
JournalInternational Journal of Psychophysiology
Journal citation158, pp. 27-33
ISSN0167-8760
Year2020
PublisherElsevier
Accepted author manuscript
License
CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
File Access Level
Open (open metadata and files)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2020.08.004
PubMed ID32979414
Web address (URL)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167876020302014
Publication dates
Published online16 Oct 2020
PublishedDec 2020

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Caregiving is associated with low secretion rates of immunoglobulin A in saliva
Gallagher, S., Phillips, A.C., Evans, P., Der, G., Hunt, K. and Carroll, D. 2008. Caregiving is associated with low secretion rates of immunoglobulin A in saliva. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 22 (4), pp. 565-572. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2007.11.007

Cortisol secretory activity in older people in relation to positive and negative well-being
Evans, P., Forte, D., Jacobs, C., Fredhoi, C., Aitchison, E., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 2007. Cortisol secretory activity in older people in relation to positive and negative well-being. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 32 (8-10), pp. 922-930. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2007.06.017

Using cognitive profiling to aid diagnosis and monitor or predict recovery in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus
Loveday, C., Iddon, J.L., Sahakian, B.J., Best, M. and Pickard, J.D. 2007. Using cognitive profiling to aid diagnosis and monitor or predict recovery in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Cerebrospinal Fluid Research: from 50th Annual Meeting of the Society for Research into Hydrocephalus and Spina Bifida. 3 (Supple), p. S30. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-8454-3-S1-S30

Suspected non-adherence and weekend versus week day differences in the awakening cortisol response
Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2006. Suspected non-adherence and weekend versus week day differences in the awakening cortisol response. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 31 (8), pp. 1009-1018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2006.05.012

Reduction in cortisol after smoking cessation among users of nicotine patches
Ussher, M., West, R., Evans, P., Steptoe, A., McEwen, A., Clow, A. and Hucklebridge, F. 2006. Reduction in cortisol after smoking cessation among users of nicotine patches. Psychosomatic Medicine. 68 (2), pp. 299-306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2004.04.007

'I think that it's a pain in the ass that I have to stand outside in the cold and have a cigarette': representations of smoking and experiences of disapproval in UK and Greek smokers
Louka, P., Maguire, M., Evans, P. and Worrell, M. 2006. 'I think that it's a pain in the ass that I have to stand outside in the cold and have a cigarette': representations of smoking and experiences of disapproval in UK and Greek smokers. Journal of Health Psychology. 11 (3), pp. 441-451. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105306063317

Post-awakening cortisol secretion during basic military training
Clow, A., Edwards, S., Owen, G., Evans, G., Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F. and Casey, A. 2006. Post-awakening cortisol secretion during basic military training. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 60 (1), pp. 88-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2005.05.007

Stressful life events are associated with low secretion rates of immunoglobulin A in saliva in the middle aged and elderly
Phillips, A.C., Carroll, D., Evans, P., Bosch, J.A., Clow, A., Hucklebridge, F. and Der, G. 2006. Stressful life events are associated with low secretion rates of immunoglobulin A in saliva in the middle aged and elderly. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 20 (2), pp. 191-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2005.06.006

Salivary cortisol, stress and arousal following five weeks training in kinesthetic meditation to undergraduate students
Bullen, V., Fredhoi, C., Bloom, W., Povey, J., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2006. Salivary cortisol, stress and arousal following five weeks training in kinesthetic meditation to undergraduate students. Journal of Holistic Healthcare. 3 (3), pp. 34-38.

Music and memory in advertising: music as a device of implicit learning and recall
Alexomanolaki, M., Loveday, C. and Kennett, C. 2006. Music and memory in advertising: music as a device of implicit learning and recall. in: Baroni, M., Addessi, A.R., Caterina, R. and Costa, M. (ed.) 9th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition, August 22-26 2006: Proceedings Bologna, Italy ICMPC-ESCOM. pp. 1190-1198

Optimism, positive affectivity, and salivary cortisol
Lai, J.C.L., Evans, P., Ng, S.H., Chong, A.M.L., Siu, O.T., Chan, C.L.W., Ho, S.M.Y., Ho, R.T.H., Chan, P. and Chan, C.C. 2005. Optimism, positive affectivity, and salivary cortisol. British Journal of Health Psychology. 10 (4), pp. 467-484. https://doi.org/10.1348/135910705X26083

The neuropsychology of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH)
Devito, E.E., Pickard, J.D., Salmond, C.H., Iddon, J.L., Loveday, C. and Sahakian, B.J. 2005. The neuropsychology of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). British Journal of Neurosurgery. 19 (3), pp. 217-224. https://doi.org/10.1080/02688690500201838

The diurnal patterns of the adrenal steroids cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in relation to awakening
Hucklebridge, F., Hussain, T., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2005. The diurnal patterns of the adrenal steroids cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in relation to awakening. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 30 (1), pp. 51-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2004.04.007

Acute reduction in secretory immunoglobulin A following smoking cessation
Ussher, M., West, R., Evans, P., Steptoe, A., McEwen, A., Clow, A. and Hucklebridge, F. 2004. Acute reduction in secretory immunoglobulin A following smoking cessation. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 29 (10), pp. 1335-1340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2004.04.004

The effect of dawn simulation on the cortisol response to awakening in healthy participants
Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F., Esgate, A., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2004. The effect of dawn simulation on the cortisol response to awakening in healthy participants. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 29 (7), pp. 925-930. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2003.08.005

The awakening cortisol response: methodological issues and significance
Clow, A., Thorn, L., Evans, P. and Hucklebridge, F. 2004. The awakening cortisol response: methodological issues and significance. Stress. 7 (1), pp. 29-37. https://doi.org/10.1080/10253890410001667205

Matching learning styles and distance education: can this make a difference in today's problems of distance education
Margeti, M. and Loveday, C. 2004. Matching learning styles and distance education: can this make a difference in today's problems of distance education. in: Proceedings of the 21st ICDE Conference on Open Learning and Distance Education: Lifelong Learning in the Networked World, 18-21 Feb 2004, Hong Kong ICDE.

Neuropsychological profile of patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer's disease
Iddon, J.L., Loveday, C., Gelling, L., Morgan, D.J.R. and Pickard, J.D. 2004. Neuropsychological profile of patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer's disease. Cerebrospinal Fluid Research: from 48th Annual Meeting of the Society for Research into Hydrocephalus and Spina Bifida. 1 (Supple), p. S17. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-8454-1-S1-S17

Neuropsychological profile of young adults with spina bifida with or without hydrocephalus
Iddon, J.L., Morgan, D.J.R., Loveday, C., Sahakian, B.J. and Pickard, J.D. 2004. Neuropsychological profile of young adults with spina bifida with or without hydrocephalus. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 75 (8), pp. 1112-1118. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2003.029058

Components of the diurnal cortisol cycle in relation to upper respiratory symptoms and perceived stress
Edwards, S., Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A. and Evans, P. 2003. Components of the diurnal cortisol cycle in relation to upper respiratory symptoms and perceived stress. Psychosomatic Medicine. 65 (2), pp. 320-327. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.PSY.0000033123.70631.8E

Memory and learning in young adults with hydrocephalus and spina bifida: specific cognitive profiles
Iddon, J.L., Morgan, D.J.R., Ahmed, R., Loveday, C., Sahakian, B.J. and Pickard, J.D. 2003. Memory and learning in young adults with hydrocephalus and spina bifida: specific cognitive profiles. European Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 13 (Supplement 1), pp. S32-S35.

An investigation into asymmetrical cortical regulation of salivary S-IgA in conscious man using transcranial magnetic stimulation
Clow, A., Lambert, S., Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F. and Higuchi, K. 2003. An investigation into asymmetrical cortical regulation of salivary S-IgA in conscious man using transcranial magnetic stimulation. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 47 (1), pp. 57-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8760(02)00093-4

The awakening cortisol response: no evidence for an influence of body posture
Hucklebridge, F., Mellins, J., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2002. The awakening cortisol response: no evidence for an influence of body posture. Life Sciences. 71 (6), pp. 639-646. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3205(02)01726-5

Ultrasound measures of bone and the diurnal free cortisol cycle: a positive association with the awakening cortisol response in healthy premenopausal women
Brooke-Wavell, K., Clow, A., Ghazi-Noori, S., Evans, P. and Hucklebridge, F. 2002. Ultrasound measures of bone and the diurnal free cortisol cycle: a positive association with the awakening cortisol response in healthy premenopausal women. Calcified Tissue International. 70 (6), pp. 463-468. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00223-001-2085-8

Low frequency noise enhances cortisol among noise sensitive subjects during work performance
Persson Waye, K., Bengtsson, J., Rylander, R., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2002. Low frequency noise enhances cortisol among noise sensitive subjects during work performance. Life Sciences. 70 (7), pp. 745-758. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3205(01)01450-3

Association between time of awakening and diurnal cortisol secretory activity
Edwards, S., Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 2001. Association between time of awakening and diurnal cortisol secretory activity. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 26 (6), pp. 613-622. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4530(01)00015-4

Exploration of the awakening cortisol response in relation to diurnal cortisol secretory activity
Edwards, S., Clow, A., Evans, P. and Hucklebridge, F. 2001. Exploration of the awakening cortisol response in relation to diurnal cortisol secretory activity. Life Sciences. 68 (18), pp. 2093-2103. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3205(01)00996-1

Modulation of secretory immunoglobulin A in saliva; response to manipulation of mood
Hucklebridge, F., Lambert, S., Clow, A., Warburton, D.M., Evans, P. and Sherwood, N. 2000. Modulation of secretory immunoglobulin A in saliva; response to manipulation of mood. Biological Psychology. 53 (1), pp. 25-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-0511(00)00040-5

The cortisol response to normal and nocturnal awakening
Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A., Rahman, H. and Evans, P. 2000. The cortisol response to normal and nocturnal awakening. Journal of Psychophysiology. 14 (1), pp. 24-28. https://doi.org/10.1027//0269-8803.14.1.24

Mind, immunity and health: the science of psychoneuroimmunology
Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 2000. Mind, immunity and health: the science of psychoneuroimmunology. London Free Association.

Endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity and HPA activation in the pig
Clow, A., Vellucci, S.V., Parrott, R.F., Hucklebridge, F., Sen, S. and Evans, P. 1999. Endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity and HPA activation in the pig. Life Sciences. 66 (1), pp. 35-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3205(99)00559-7

The awakening cortisol response and blood glucose levels
Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A., Abeyguneratne, T., Huezo-Diaz, P. and Evans, P. 1999. The awakening cortisol response and blood glucose levels. Life Sciences. 64 (11), pp. 931-937. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3205(99)00019-3

The relationship between salivary secretory immunoglobulin A and cortisol: neuroendocrine response to awakening and the diurnal cycle
Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A. and Evans, P. 1998. The relationship between salivary secretory immunoglobulin A and cortisol: neuroendocrine response to awakening and the diurnal cycle. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 31 (1), pp. 69-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8760(98)00042-7

Mind-body influences on immunity: lateralised control, stress, individual differences, and prophylaxis
Gruzelier, J., Clow, A., Evans, P., Lazar, I. and Walker, L. 1998. Mind-body influences on immunity: lateralised control, stress, individual differences, and prophylaxis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 851, pp. 487-494. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb09027.x

The relationship between circadian patterns of salivary cortisol and endogenous inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A
Hucklebridge, F., Sen, S., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1998. The relationship between circadian patterns of salivary cortisol and endogenous inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A. Life Sciences. 62 (25), pp. 2321-2328. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3205(98)00213-6

Secretory immunoglobulin A and cardiovascular responses to mental arithmetic and cold pressor
Willemsen, G., Ring, C., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1998. Secretory immunoglobulin A and cardiovascular responses to mental arithmetic and cold pressor. Psychophysiology. 35 (3), pp. 252-259. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-8986.3530252

Regional and molecular separation of the four bioactivities of ‘tribulin’
Hucklebridge, F., Doyle, A., Pang, F.Y., Adlard, M., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1998. Regional and molecular separation of the four bioactivities of ‘tribulin’. Neuroscience Letters. 240 (1), pp. 29-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3940(97)00916-6

The role and regulation of monoamines in stress
Clow, A., Hucklebridge, F. and Evans, P. 1998. The role and regulation of monoamines in stress. in: Levi, A., Grauer, E., Ben-Nathan, D. and de Kloet, E.R. (ed.) New frontiers in stress research: modulation of brain function Amsterdam Harwood Academic. pp. 21-31

The cortisol response to psychological challenge is preceded by a rise in endogenous inhibitor of monoamine oxidase.
Clow, A., Patel, S., Najafi, M., Evans, P. and Hucklebridge, F. 1997. The cortisol response to psychological challenge is preceded by a rise in endogenous inhibitor of monoamine oxidase. Life Sciences. 61 (5), pp. 567-575. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3205(97)00416-5

Endogenous monoamine oxidase A inhibitory activity (tribulin), measured in saliva, is related to cardiovascular reactivity in normal individuals
Clow, A., Doyle, A., Hucklebridge, F., Carroll, D., Ring, C., Shrimpton, J., Willemsen, G. and Evans, P. 1997. Endogenous monoamine oxidase A inhibitory activity (tribulin), measured in saliva, is related to cardiovascular reactivity in normal individuals. Journal of Neural Transmission (supplement). 52, pp. 77-83.

Modulation of secretory immunoglobulin A in saliva in relation to an acute episode of stress and arousal
Bristow, M., Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A. and Evans, P. 1997. Modulation of secretory immunoglobulin A in saliva in relation to an acute episode of stress and arousal. Journal of Psychophysiology. 11 (3), pp. 248-255.

Positive but not negative life events predict vulnerability to upper respiratory illness
Evans, P., Doyle, A., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 1996. Positive but not negative life events predict vulnerability to upper respiratory illness. British Journal of Health Psychology. 1 (4), pp. 339-348. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8287.1996.tb00514.x

Salivary monoamine oxidase A and B inhibitory activities correlate with stress
Doyle, A., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1996. Salivary monoamine oxidase A and B inhibitory activities correlate with stress. Life Sciences. 59 (16), pp. 1357-1362. https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3205(96)00461-4

Urinary output of endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity is related to everyday stress
Doyle, A., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1996. Urinary output of endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity is related to everyday stress. Life Sciences. 58 (20), pp. 1723-1730. https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3205(96)00153-1

Tribulin and stress in normal individuals
Doyle, A., Pang, F.Y., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1996. Tribulin and stress in normal individuals. in: McCarty, R., Aguilera, G., Sabban, E. and Kvetnansky, R. (ed.) Stress: molecular genetic and neurobiological advances Amsterdam Harwood Academic.

Urinary cortisol and endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitor(s), but not isatin, are raised in anticipation of stress and/or arousal in normal individuals
Doyle, A., Pang, F.Y., Bristow, M., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1996. Urinary cortisol and endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitor(s), but not isatin, are raised in anticipation of stress and/or arousal in normal individuals. Stress Medicine. 12 (1), pp. 43-49. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1700(199601)12:1<43::AID-SMI677>3.0.CO;2-4

Secretory immunoglobulin A as convenient biomarker in health survey work
Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A. and Doyle, A. 1995. Secretory immunoglobulin A as convenient biomarker in health survey work. in: Rodriguez-Martin, J. (ed.) Health psychology and quality of life research: Proceedings of the 8th Annual Conference of the European Health Psychology Society Alicante University of Alicante.

Stress, arousal, Cortisol and secretory immunoglobulin A in students undergoing assessment
Evans, P., Bristow, M., Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A. and Pang, F.Y. 1994. Stress, arousal, Cortisol and secretory immunoglobulin A in students undergoing assessment. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 33 (4), pp. 575-576. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1994.tb01154.x

Dysphoria and immune status in postpartum women
Hucklebridge, F., Smith, M.D., Clow, A., Evans, P., Glover, V., Taylor, A., Adams, D. and Lydyard, P.M. 1994. Dysphoria and immune status in postpartum women. Biological Psychology. 37 (3), pp. 199-206. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-0511(94)90002-7

The relationship between secretory immunity, mood and life-events
Evans, P., Bristow, M., Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A. and Walters, N. 1993. The relationship between secretory immunity, mood and life-events. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 32 (2), pp. 227-236. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1993.tb01050.x

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