Spontaneous perspective-taking and its relation to schizotypy

Gardner, M. and Buchanan, T. 2023. Spontaneous perspective-taking and its relation to schizotypy. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry. 28 (3), pp. 181-195. https://doi.org/10.1080/13546805.2023.2189575

TitleSpontaneous perspective-taking and its relation to schizotypy
TypeJournal article
AuthorsGardner, M. and Buchanan, T.
Abstract

Introduction: Patients with schizophrenia differ from healthy controls in the extent that they spontaneously take another’s perspective. For such effects, it is difficult to separate the influence of schizophrenia from multiple potential confounders. Here, for the first time, associations between spontaneous perspective-taking and schizotypy were investigated in a nonclinical population.

Methods: Adult participants completed both a Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-BRU) and a novel online adaptation of a visual perspective-taking task that required participants to make judgements both from their own perspective and that of a human avatar.

Results: Response times were elevated when the avatar's perspective was inconsistent with that of the participant, providing evidence of spontaneous perspective-taking. This demonstrates that the visual perspective-taking task can be successfully implemented in an online format. However, schizotypy did not predict these spontaneous perspective-taking effects.

Conclusions: Unlike explicit mentalising, this form of implicit mentalising is not affected by nonclinical manifestations of schizotypy traits. This implies that impairment of general neurocognitive function contributes to altered spontaneous perspective-taking in schizophrenia. A novel account based on the cognitive control processes involved in perspective selection and the role of attention in perspective calculation reconciles apparently contradictory findings of earlier studies comparing patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

KeywordsTheory of Mind
perspective-taking
schizotypy
schizophrenia
nonclinical
JournalCognitive Neuropsychiatry
Journal citation28 (3), pp. 181-195
ISSN1354-6805
1464-0619
Year2023
PublisherTaylor & Francis
Publisher's version
License
CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
File Access Level
Open (open metadata and files)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1080/13546805.2023.2189575
PubMed ID36924343
Publication dates
Published online16 Mar 2023

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Differential experiences of the psychobiological sequelae of ecstasy use: Quantitative and qualitative data from an internet study
Rodgers, J., Buchanan, T., Pearson, C., Parrott, A.C., Ling, J., Heffernan, T. and Scholey, A.B. 2006. Differential experiences of the psychobiological sequelae of ecstasy use: Quantitative and qualitative data from an internet study. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 20 (3), pp. 437-446. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881105058777

Dancing hot on Ecstasy: Physical activity and thermal comfort ratings are associated with the memory and other psychobiological problems reported by recreational MDMA users
Parrott, A.C., Rodgers, J., Buchanan, T., Ling, J., Heffernan, T. and Scholey, A.B. 2006. Dancing hot on Ecstasy: Physical activity and thermal comfort ratings are associated with the memory and other psychobiological problems reported by recreational MDMA users. Human Psychopharmacology. 21 (5), pp. 285-298. https://doi.org/10.1002/hup.773

Watching me, watching you: Privacy attitudes and reactions to identity card implementation scenarios in the United Kingdom
Joinson, A.N., Paine, C., Buchanan, T. and Reips, U.-D. 2006. Watching me, watching you: Privacy attitudes and reactions to identity card implementation scenarios in the United Kingdom. Journal of Information Science. 32 (4), pp. 334-343. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165551506064902

Nonequivalence of on-line and paper-and-pencil psychological tests: the case of the prospective memory questionnaire
Buchanan, T., Ali, T., Heffernan, T.M., Ling, J., Parrott, A.C., Rodgers, J. and Scholey, A.B. 2005. Nonequivalence of on-line and paper-and-pencil psychological tests: the case of the prospective memory questionnaire. Behavior Research Methods. 37 (1), pp. 148-154.

Self-rated everyday and prospective memory abilities of cigarette smokers and non-smokers: A web-based study
Heffernan, T.M., Ling, J., Parrott, A.C., Buchanan, T., Scholey, A.B. and Rodgers, J. 2005. Self-rated everyday and prospective memory abilities of cigarette smokers and non-smokers: A web-based study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 78 (3), pp. 235-241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.11.008

Implementing a five-factor personality inventory for use on the Internet
Buchanan, T., Johnson, J.A. and Goldberg, L.R. 2005. Implementing a five-factor personality inventory for use on the Internet. European Journal of Psychological Assessment. 21 (2), pp. 115-127. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759.21.2.115

Personality, gender and self-perceived intelligence
Furnham, A. and Buchanan, T. 2005. Personality, gender and self-perceived intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences. 39 (3), pp. 543-555. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.02.011

The reality of psychomotor problems, and the possibility of Parkinson's disorder, in some recreational ecstasy/MDMA users: a rejoinder to Sumnall et al. (2003).
Parrott, A.C., Rodgers, J., Buchanan, T., Scholey, A.B., Heffernan, T. and Ling, J. 2004. The reality of psychomotor problems, and the possibility of Parkinson's disorder, in some recreational ecstasy/MDMA users: a rejoinder to Sumnall et al. (2003). Psychopharmacology. 171 (2), pp. 231-233. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-003-1599-3

Internet-based psychological testing and assessment
Barak, A. and Buchanan, T. 2004. Internet-based psychological testing and assessment. in: Kraus, R., Zack, J.S. and Stricker, G. (ed.) Online couseling: a handbook for mental health professionals San Diego, CA Elsevier. pp. 217-239

Increased intensity of Ecstasy and polydrug usage in the more experienced recreational Ecstasy/MDMA users: A WWW study
Scholey, A.B., Parrott, A.C., Buchanan, T., Heffernan, T.M., Ling, J. and Rodgers, J. 2004. Increased intensity of Ecstasy and polydrug usage in the more experienced recreational Ecstasy/MDMA users: A WWW study. Addictive Behaviors. 29 (4), pp. 743-752. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.02.022

An investigation into the psychometric properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome
McCue, P., Martin, C.R., Buchanan, T., Rodgers, J. and Scholey, A.B. 2003. An investigation into the psychometric properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome. Psychology, Health and Medicine. 8 (4), pp. 425-439. https://doi.org/10.1080/1354850310001604568

Internet-based questionnaire assessment: Appropriate use in clinical contexts
Buchanan, T. 2003. Internet-based questionnaire assessment: Appropriate use in clinical contexts. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. 32 (3), pp. 100-109. https://doi.org/10.1080/16506070310000957

Parkinson's disorder, psychomotor problems and dopaminergic neurotoxicity in recreational ecstasy/MDMA users
Parrott, A.C., Buchanan, T., Heffernan, T.M., Scholey, A., Ling, J. and Rodgers, J. 2003. Parkinson's disorder, psychomotor problems and dopaminergic neurotoxicity in recreational ecstasy/MDMA users. Psychopharmacology. 167 (4), pp. 449-450. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-003-1447-5

Effects of alcohol on subjective ratings of prospective and everyday memory deficits
Ling, J., Heffernan, T.M., Buchanan, T., Rodgers, J., Scholey, A.B. and Parrott, A.C. 2003. Effects of alcohol on subjective ratings of prospective and everyday memory deficits. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 27 (6), pp. 970-974. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2003.tb04422.x

Patterns of drug use and the influence of gender on self-reports of memory ability in ecstasy users: A web-based study
Rodgers, J., Buchanan, T., Scholey, A.B., Heffernan, T.M., Ling, J. and Parrott, A.C. 2003. Patterns of drug use and the influence of gender on self-reports of memory ability in ecstasy users: A web-based study. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 17, pp. 389-396. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881103174016

Attentional demands of continuously monitoring orientation using vestibular information
Yardley, L., Papo, D., Bronstein, A.M., Gresty, M.A., Gardner, M., Lavie, N. and Luxon, L. 2002. Attentional demands of continuously monitoring orientation using vestibular information. Neuropsychologia. 40 (4), pp. 373-383. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0028-3932(01)00113-0

Self-monitoring: an elaboration of the concept based on Internet-mediated data
Smith, J.L. and Buchanan, T. 2002. Self-monitoring: an elaboration of the concept based on Internet-mediated data. Social Psychological Review. 4 (1), pp. 14-24.

Online Assessment: Desirable or Dangerous?
Buchanan, T. 2002. Online Assessment: Desirable or Dangerous? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 33 (2), pp. 148-154. https://doi.org/10.1037//0735-7028.33.2.148

Ecstacy/MDMA attributed problems reported by novice, moderate and heavy recretional users
Parrott, A.C., Buchanan, T., Scholey, A.B., Heffernan, T., Ling, J. and Rodgers, J. 2002. Ecstacy/MDMA attributed problems reported by novice, moderate and heavy recretional users. Human Psychopharmacology. 17 (6), pp. 309-312. https://doi.org/10.1002/hup.415

Interference between postural control and mental task performance in patients with vestibular disorder and healthy controls
Yardley, L., Gardner, M., Bronstein, A.M., Davies, R., Buckwell, D. and Luxon, L. 2001. Interference between postural control and mental task performance in patients with vestibular disorder and healthy controls. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 71 (1), pp. 48-52. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.71.1.48

Differential effects of Ecstasy and cannabis on self-reports of memory ability: A web-based study
Rodgers, J., Buchanan, T., Scholey, A.B., Heffernan, T.M., Ling, J. and Parrott, A. 2001. Differential effects of Ecstasy and cannabis on self-reports of memory ability: A web-based study. Human Psychopharmacology. 16 (8), pp. 619-625. https://doi.org/10.1002/hup.345

Doing educational research on the Internet
Joinson, A.N. and Buchanan, T. 2001. Doing educational research on the Internet. in: Wolfe, C.R. (ed.) Learning and teaching on the World Wide Web San Diego, CA Academic Press. pp. 221-242

Online personality assessment
Buchanan, T. 2001. Online personality assessment. in: Reips, U.D. and Bosnjak, M. (ed.) Dimensions of Internet science Lengerich Pabst Science Publishers. pp. 57-74

Seeing how it's done: matching conditions for observer rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) in the bidirectional control
Ray, E.D., Gardner, M. and Heyes, C. 2000. Seeing how it's done: matching conditions for observer rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) in the bidirectional control. Animal Cognition. 3 (3), pp. 147-157. https://doi.org/10.1007/s100710000069

Book review: Budiansky, S. (1998). If a lion could talk: How animals think. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Pp. 234. ISBN 0297819321. £20.00 (Hbk). ISBN 0753807726. £7.99 (Pbk).
Gardner, M. 2000. Book review: Budiansky, S. (1998). If a lion could talk: How animals think. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Pp. 234. ISBN 0297819321. £20.00 (Hbk). ISBN 0753807726. £7.99 (Pbk). Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section B. 53 (3), pp. 286-287. https://doi.org/10.1080/713932730

Potential of the Internet for personality research
Buchanan, T. 2000. Potential of the Internet for personality research. in: Birnbaum, M.H. (ed.) Psychological experiments on the Internet San Diego, CA Academic Press. pp. 121-140

The efficacy of a World-Wide Web mediated formative assessment
Buchanan, T. 2000. The efficacy of a World-Wide Web mediated formative assessment. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 16 (3), pp. 193-200. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2729.2000.00132.x

Internet research: Self-monitoring and judgments of attractiveness
Buchanan, T. 2000. Internet research: Self-monitoring and judgments of attractiveness. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers. 32 (4), pp. 521-527. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03200824

Does the revised multiple affect adjective checklist hostility subscale measure hostility?
Buchanan, T. 1999. Does the revised multiple affect adjective checklist hostility subscale measure hostility? Aggressive Behavior. 25 (3), pp. 179-184. https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1098-2337(1999)25:3<179::aid-ab2>3.0.co;2-m

Using the Internet for psychological research: personality testing on the World Wide Web.
Buchanan, T. and Smith, J.L. 1999. Using the Internet for psychological research: personality testing on the World Wide Web. British journal of psychology (London, England : 1953). 90 (1), pp. 125-144. https://doi.org/10.1348/000712699161189

Research on the Internet: Validation of a World-Wide Web mediated personality scale
Buchanan, T. and Smith, J.L. 1999. Research on the Internet: Validation of a World-Wide Web mediated personality scale. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers. 31 (4), pp. 565-571. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03200736

Using the World Wide Web for formative assessment
Buchanan, T. 1998. Using the World Wide Web for formative assessment. Journal of Educational Technology Systems. 27 (1), pp. 71-79. https://doi.org/10.2190/167K-BQHU-UGGF-HX75

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