|Authors||Goldstone, A.P., Miras, A.D., Scholtz, S., Jackson, S., Neff, K.J., Pénicaud, L., Geoghegan, J., Chhina, N., Durighel, G., Bell, J.D., Meillon, S. and le Roux, C.W.|
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is an effective long-term intervention for weight loss maintenance, reducing appetite, and also food reward, via unclear mechanisms.
To investigate the role of elevated satiety gut hormones after RYGB, we examined food hedonic-reward responses after their acute post-prandial suppression.
These were randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover experimental medicine studies.
Two groups, more than 5 months after RYGB for obesity (n = 7-11), compared with nonobese controls (n = 10), or patients after gastric banding (BAND) surgery (n = 9) participated in the studies.
Studies were performed after acute administration of the somatostatin analog octreotide or saline. In one study, patients after RYGB, and nonobese controls, performed a behavioral progressive ratio task for chocolate sweets. In another study, patients after RYGB, and controls after BAND surgery, performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging food picture evaluation task.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Octreotide increased both appetitive food reward (breakpoint) in the progressive ratio task (n = 9), and food appeal (n = 9) and reward system blood oxygen level-dependent signal (n = 7) in the functional magnetic resonance imaging task, in the RYGB group, but not in the control groups.
Octreotide suppressed postprandial plasma peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1, and fibroblast growth factor-19 after RYGB. The reduction in plasma peptide YY with octreotide positively correlated with the increase in brain reward system blood oxygen level-dependent signal in RYGB/BAND subjects, with a similar trend for glucagon-like peptide-1.
Enhanced satiety gut hormone responses after RYGB may be a causative mechanism by which anatomical alterations of the gut in obesity surgery modify behavioral and brain reward responses to food.