Recent innovations in 3D printing technologies and processes have influenced how products are designed, built and delivered. However, there is a significant gap in our knowledge of how 3D printing is impacting on manufacturing eco-systems and competitive dynamics in different industries and contexts. Basing our analysis on systematic review of organisations, we develop a taxonomy capable of explaining the many areas the technology can impact. We based our taxonomy on Pavitt’s identification of industry types, but extended this with Castellacci’s more recent service-manufacturing sectors which includes external sources and more open business models (Castellacci, 2008; Pavitt, 1984). We populate the model with cases and industry exemplars showing the wide extent of the applications of 3D printing within the different sectors, the novel disruption happening in existing market structures, and the implications for both firms and their customers. In addition to offering a comprehensive framework for plotting and comparing the impact of 3D printing, we emphasise the role of users in co-creation and personalisation and how this varies according to the level of use of 3D printing at different stages between end products and various types of manufacturing rstrategies. While 3D printing has been touted as disruptive, we suggest that a new taxonomy offers an additional understanding to appreciate the ways firms can operate in a 3D printing context.