- Book chapter

Taskaldiran, M., Morling, R.C.S. and Kale, I. 2009. The modified Max-Log-MAP turbo decoding algorithm by extrinsic information scaling for wireless applications. in: Powell, S. and Shim, J.P. (ed.) Wireless technology: applications, management, and security Springer.

Chapter title | The modified Max-Log-MAP turbo decoding algorithm by extrinsic information scaling for wireless applications |
---|---|

Authors | Taskaldiran, M., Morling, R.C.S. and Kale, I. |

Editors | Powell, S. and Shim, J.P. |

Abstract | The iterative nature of turbo-decoding algorithms increases their complexity compare to conventional FEC decoding algorithms. Two iterative decoding algorithms, Soft-Output-Viterbi Algorithm (SOVA) and Maximum A posteriori Probability (MAP) Algorithm require complex decoding operations over several iteration cycles. So, for real-time implementation of turbo codes, reducing the decoder complexity while preserving bit-error-rate (BER) performance is an important design consideration. In this chapter, a modification to the Max-Log-MAP algorithm is presented. This modification is to scale the extrinsic information exchange between the constituent decoders. The remainder of this chapter is organized as follows: An overview of the turbo encoding and decoding processes, the MAP algorithm and its simplified versions the Log-MAP and Max-Log-MAP algorithms are presented in section 1. The extrinsic information scaling is introduced, simulation results are presented, and the performance of different methods to choose the best scaling factor is discussed in Section 2. Section 3 discusses trends and applications of turbo coding from the perspective of wireless applications. |

Book title | Wireless technology: applications, management, and security |

Year | 2009 |

Publisher | Springer |

File | TurboCodeChapter.pdf |

Publication dates | |

Published | 2009 |

Series | Lecture notes in electrical engineering |

ISBN | 9780387717869 |

Journal citation | (44) |

A Fully Adaptive Lattice-based Notch Filter for Mitigation of Interference in GPS

Arif, S., Coskun, A. and Kale, I. 2019. A Fully Adaptive Lattice-based Notch Filter for Mitigation of Interference in GPS. *15th Conference on PhD Research in Microelectronics and Electronics (PRIME 2019).* Lausanne 15 - 18 Jul 2019 IEEE .

On board Processor and Processing Strategies for Next Generation Reconfigurable Satellite Payloads

Cetinsel, S., Coskun, A., Kale, I., Hughes, R., Ernst, C. and Angeletti, P. 2019. On board Processor and Processing Strategies for Next Generation Reconfigurable Satellite Payloads. *Recent Advances in Space Technologies (RAST 2019).* Turkey 11 - 14 Jun 2019 IEEE .

Energy harvesting from Microbial Fuel Cells – Wastewater to Electricity

Breheny, M., Bowman, K., Turgul, V., Keshavarz, T., Kale, I., Gomaa, O. and Kyazze, G. 2019. Energy harvesting from Microbial Fuel Cells – Wastewater to Electricity. *1st Annual EBNet Early Career Conference.* Sheffield Hallam University 01 - 02 Jul 2019

Modelling, simulation and verification of 4-phase adiabatic logic design: A VHDL-Based approach

Maheshwari, S., Bartlett, V.A. and Kale, I. 2019. Modelling, simulation and verification of 4-phase adiabatic logic design: A VHDL-Based approach. *Integration, the VLSI Journal.* Advanced online publication. doi:10.1016/j.vlsi.2019.01.007

Modelling, Simulation and Verification of 4-phase Adiabatic Logic Design: A VHDL-Based Approach

Maheshwari, S., Bartlett, V. and Kale, I. 2019. Modelling, Simulation and Verification of 4-phase Adiabatic Logic Design: A VHDL-Based Approach. *Integration: the VLSI Journal.* 67, pp. 144-154. doi:10.1016/j.vlsi.2019.01.007

Hardware implementation of Modified Annular Ring Ratio for Blood Cell Detection in Thin Blood Smear Images

Stecowiat, A., Reni, S. and Kale, I. 2018. Hardware implementation of Modified Annular Ring Ratio for Blood Cell Detection in Thin Blood Smear Images. *Procedia Computer Science.* 141, pp. 390-395. doi:10.1016/j.procs.2018.10.185

Mobile Hardware Based Implementation of a Novel, Efficient, Fuzzy Logic Inspired Edge Detection Technique for Analysis of Malaria Infected Microscopic Thin Blood Images

Bias, S., Reni, S. and Kale, I. 2018. Mobile Hardware Based Implementation of a Novel, Efficient, Fuzzy Logic Inspired Edge Detection Technique for Analysis of Malaria Infected Microscopic Thin Blood Images. *Procedia Computer Science.* 141, pp. 390-395. doi:10.1016/j.procs.2018.10.187

Hybrid IIR/FIR Wavelet Filter Banks for ECG Signal Denoising

Eminaga, Y., Coskun, A. and Kale, I. 2018. Hybrid IIR/FIR Wavelet Filter Banks for ECG Signal Denoising. *IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems (BIOCAS).* Cleveland, Ohio, US 17 - 19 Oct 2018 IEEE . doi:10.1109/BIOCAS.2018.8584717

Area and Power Efficient Implementation of db4 Wavelet Filter Banks for ECG Applications Using Reconfigurable Multiplier Blocks

Eminaga, Y., Coskun, A. and Kale, I. 2018. Area and Power Efficient Implementation of db4 Wavelet Filter Banks for ECG Applications Using Reconfigurable Multiplier Blocks. *4th International Conference on Frontiers of Signal Processing (ICFSP 2018).* Poitiers, France 24 - 27 Sep 2018 IEEE . doi:10.1109/ICFSP.2018.8552046

IIR Wavelet Filter Banks for ECG Signal Denoising

Eminaga, Y., Coskun, A. and Kale, I. 2018. IIR Wavelet Filter Banks for ECG Signal Denoising. *22nd IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing: Algorithms, Architectures, Arrangements, and Applications (SPA).* Poznan, Poland 19 - 21 Sep 2018 IEEE . doi:10.23919/SPA.2018.8563418

Symmetric Power Analysis Attack Resilient Adiabatic Logic for Smartcard Applications

Raghav, H., Bartlett, V. and Kale, I. 2018. Symmetric Power Analysis Attack Resilient Adiabatic Logic for Smartcard Applications. *28th International Symposium on Power and Timing Modeling, Optimization and Simulation.* Costa Brava, Spain 02 - 04 Jul 2018 IEEE . doi:10.1109/PATMOS.2018.8463996

VHDL-based Modelling Approach for the Digital Simulation of 4-phase Adiabatic Logic Design

Maheshwari, S., Bartlett, V. and Kale, I. 2018. VHDL-based Modelling Approach for the Digital Simulation of 4-phase Adiabatic Logic Design . *28th International Symposium on Power and Timing Modeling, Optimization and Simulation.* Costa Brava, Spain 02 - 04 Jul 2018 IEEE . doi:10.1109/PATMOS.2018.8464140

Multi-Stage Complex Notch Filtering for Interference Detection and Mitigation to Improve the Acquisition Performance of GPS

Arif, S., Coskun, A. and Kale, I. 2018. Multi-Stage Complex Notch Filtering for Interference Detection and Mitigation to Improve the Acquisition Performance of GPS. *14th Conference on PhD Research in Microelectronics and Electronics (PRIME 2018).* Prague, Czech Republic 02 - 05 Jul 2018 IEEE . doi:10.1109/PRIME.2018.8430324

Investigating the effectiveness of Without Charge-Sharing Quasi-Adiabatic Logic for energy efficient and secure cryptographic implementations

Raghav, H., Bartlett, V. and Kale, I. 2018. Investigating the effectiveness of Without Charge-Sharing Quasi-Adiabatic Logic for energy efficient and secure cryptographic implementations. *Microelectronics Journal.* 76, pp. 8-21. doi:10.1016/j.mejo.2018.04.004

Permittivity Extraction of Glucose Solutions Through Artificial Neural Networks and Non-invasive Microwave Glucose Sensing

Turgul, V. and Kale, I. 2018. Permittivity Extraction of Glucose Solutions Through Artificial Neural Networks and Non-invasive Microwave Glucose Sensing. *Sensors and Actuators A: Physical.* 277, pp. 65-72. doi:10.1016/j.sna.2018.03.041

Energy efficient implementation of multi-phase quasi-adiabatic Cyclic Redundancy Check in near field communication

Maheshwari, S., Bartlett, V. and Kale, I. 2018. Energy efficient implementation of multi-phase quasi-adiabatic Cyclic Redundancy Check in near field communication. *Integration, the VLSI Journal.* 62, pp. 341-352. doi:10.1016/j.vlsi.2018.04.002

Automatic Heart Sounds Segmentation based on the Correlation Coefficients Matrix for Similar Cardiac Cycles Identification

Belmecheri, M.Z., Ahfir, M. and Kale, I. 2018. Automatic Heart Sounds Segmentation based on the Correlation Coefficients Matrix for Similar Cardiac Cycles Identification. *Biomedical Signal Processing and Control.* 43, pp. 300-310. doi:10.1016/j.bspc.2018.03.009

A Novel Two-Channel Continuous-Time Time-Interleaved 3rd-order Sigma- Delta Modulator with Integrator-Sharing Topology

Talebzadeh, J. and Kale, I. 2018. A Novel Two-Channel Continuous-Time Time-Interleaved 3rd-order Sigma- Delta Modulator with Integrator-Sharing Topology. *Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing.* 95 (3), pp. 375-385. doi:10.1007/s10470-018-1125-5

All-Digital 1550 nm Optical Aqueous Glucose Solution Measurement System

Turgul, V. and Kale, I. 2017. All-Digital 1550 nm Optical Aqueous Glucose Solution Measurement System. *24th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS).* Batumi 05 - 08 Dec 2017 IEEE . doi:10.1109/ICECS.2017.8292032

The role of space in the security and defence policy of Turkey. A change in outlook: Security in space versus security from space

Ercan, C. and Kale, I. 2017. The role of space in the security and defence policy of Turkey. A change in outlook: Security in space versus security from space. *Elsevier, Space Policy.* 42, pp. 17-25. doi:10.1016/j.spacepol.2017.10.004

Robustness of Power Analysis Attack Resilient Adiabatic Logic: WCS-QuAL under PVT Variations

Raghav, H., Bartlett, V. and Kale, I. 2017. Robustness of Power Analysis Attack Resilient Adiabatic Logic: WCS-QuAL under PVT Variations. *27th International Symposium on Power and Timing Modeling, Optimization and Simulation.* Thessaloniki, Greece 25 - 27 Sep 2017 IEEE . doi:10.1109/PATMOS.2017.8106968

A Novel Power Analysis Attack Resilient Adiabatic Logic without Charge Sharing

Raghav, H., Bartlett, V. and Kale, I. 2017. A Novel Power Analysis Attack Resilient Adiabatic Logic without Charge Sharing. *23rd European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD).* Catania, Italy 04 - 06 Sep 2017 IEEE . doi:10.1109/ECCTD.2017.8093262

Adiabatic Flip-Flops and Sequential Circuit Design using Novel Resettable Adiabatic Buffers

Maheshwari, S., Bartlett, V. and Kale, I. 2017. Adiabatic Flip-Flops and Sequential Circuit Design using Novel Resettable Adiabatic Buffers. *23rd European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design.* Catania, Italy 04 - 06 Sep 2017 IEEE . doi:10.1109/ECCTD.2017.8093257

Multiplier Free Implementation of 8-tap Daubechies Wavelet Filters for Biomedical Applications

Eminaga, Y., Coskun, A. and Kale, I. 2017. Multiplier Free Implementation of 8-tap Daubechies Wavelet Filters for Biomedical Applications. *IEEE New Generation of Circuits and Systems Conference.* Genova, Italy 07 - 09 Sep 2017 IEEE . doi:10.1109/NGCAS.2017.63

A Wireless Sensor Network for Early Forest Fire Detection and Monitoring as a Decision Factor in the Context of a Complex Integrated Emergency Response System

Abdullah, S., Masar, S., Bertalan, S., Coskun, A. and Kale, I. 2017. A Wireless Sensor Network for Early Forest Fire Detection and Monitoring as a Decision Factor in the Context of a Complex Integrated Emergency Response System. *IEEE Workshop on Environmental, Energy, and Structural Monitoring Systems.* Milan, Italy 24 - 25 Jul 2017 IEEE . doi:10.1109/EESMS.2017.8052688

Simulating the Effects of Skin Thickness and Fingerprints to Highlight Problems with Non-invasive RF Blood Glucose Sensing from Fingertips

Turgul, V. and Kale, I. 2017. Simulating the Effects of Skin Thickness and Fingerprints to Highlight Problems with Non-invasive RF Blood Glucose Sensing from Fingertips. *IEEE Sensors Journal.* 17 (22), pp. 7553-7560. doi:10.1109/JSEN.2017.2757083

A Novel Two-Channel Continuous-Time Time-Interleaved 3rd-order Sigma-Delta Modulator with Integrator-Sharing Topology

Talebzadeh, J. and Kale, I. 2017. A Novel Two-Channel Continuous-Time Time-Interleaved 3rd-order Sigma-Delta Modulator with Integrator-Sharing Topology. *Oxford Circuits and Systems Conference (OXCAS), 2017.* Oxford, UK 19 - 19 Sep 2017 Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET).

A 28mW 320MHz 3rd–Order Continuous-Time Time-Interleaved Delta-Sigma Modulator with 10MHz Bandwidth and 12 Bits of Resolution

Talebzadeh, J. and Kale, I. 2017. A 28mW 320MHz 3rd–Order Continuous-Time Time-Interleaved Delta-Sigma Modulator with 10MHz Bandwidth and 12 Bits of Resolution. *7th International Conference on Circuits, System and Simulation (ICCSS 2017).* University of Greenwich, London, UK 14 - 17 Jul 2017 IEEE . doi:10.1109/CIRSYSSIM.2017.8023207

A General Formula for Impulse-Invariant Transformation for Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulators

Talebzadeh, J. and Kale, I. 2017. A General Formula for Impulse-Invariant Transformation for Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulators . *13th Conference on Ph.D. Research in Microelectronics and Electronics (PRIME) 2017.* Giardini Naxos and Taormina, Italy 12 - 15 Jun 2017 IEEE . doi:10.1109/PRIME.2017.7974157

Design and Simulation of a 3rd-order Discrete-Time Time-Interleaved Delta-Sigma Modulator with Shared Integrators between Two Paths

Talebzadeh, J. and Kale, I. 2017. Design and Simulation of a 3rd-order Discrete-Time Time-Interleaved Delta-Sigma Modulator with Shared Integrators between Two Paths. *25th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE2017).* Tehran, IRAN 02 - 04 May 2017 IEEE . doi:10.1109/IranianCEE.2017.7985431

Design of a Delayless Feedback Path Free 2nd-order Two-Path Time-Interleaved Discrete-Time Delta-Sigma Modulator- a New Approach

Talebzadeh, J. and Kale, I. 2017. Design of a Delayless Feedback Path Free 2nd-order Two-Path Time-Interleaved Discrete-Time Delta-Sigma Modulator- a New Approach . *First IEEE PhD Research in Microelectronics and Electronics Conference PRIME_LA.* Bariloche, Argentina 20 - 23 Feb 2017 IEEE . doi:10.1109/PRIME-LA.2017.7899174

Influence of fingerprints and finger positioning on accuracy of RF blood glucose measurement from fingertips

Turgul, V. and Kale, I. 2017. Influence of fingerprints and finger positioning on accuracy of RF blood glucose measurement from fingertips. *Electronics Letters.* 53 (4), pp. 218-220. doi:10.1049/el.2016.4327

Historical Space Steps of Turkey: It Is High Time to Establish the Turkish Space Agency

Ercan, C. and Kale, I. 2017. Historical Space Steps of Turkey: It Is High Time to Establish the Turkish Space Agency. *Acta Astronautica.* 130, pp. 67-74. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2016.10.019

Two-Path All-pass Based Half-Band Infinite Impulse Response Decimation Filters and the Effects of Their Non-Linear Phase Response on ECG Signal Acquisition

Eminaga, Y., Coskun, A. and Kale, I. 2017. Two-Path All-pass Based Half-Band Infinite Impulse Response Decimation Filters and the Effects of Their Non-Linear Phase Response on ECG Signal Acquisition. *Biomedical Signal Processing & Control.* 31, pp. 529-538. doi:10.1016/j.bspc.2016.08.019

Adaptive Gray World-Based Color Normalization of Thin Blood Film Images

Tek, F.B., Dempster, A.G. and Kale, I. 2016. Adaptive Gray World-Based Color Normalization of Thin Blood Film Images.

Energy efficiency of 2- Step power-clocks for adiabatic logic

Raghav, H., Bartlett, V. and Kale, I. 2016. Energy efficiency of 2- Step power-clocks for adiabatic logic. *26th International Workshop on Power And Timing Modeling, Optimization and Simulation (PATMOS).* Bremen, Germany 21 - 23 Sep 2016 IEEE . doi:10.1109/PATMOS.2016.7833684

Investigation of Stepwise Charging Circuits for Power-Clock Generation in Adiabatic Logic

Raghav, H., Bartlett, V. and Kale, I. 2016. Investigation of Stepwise Charging Circuits for Power-Clock Generation in Adiabatic Logic. *12th International Conference on Ph.D. Research in Microelectronics and Electronics (PRIME).* Portugal, Lisbon 27 - 30 Jun 2017 IEEE . doi:10.1109/PRIME.2016.7519499

4-phase resettable quasi-adiabatic flip-flops and sequential circuit design

Maheshwari, S., Bartlett, V. and Kale, I. 2016. 4-phase resettable quasi-adiabatic flip-flops and sequential circuit design. *12th International Conference on PhD Research in Microelectronics and Electronics.* Portugal, Lisbon 27 - 30 Jun 2016 IEEE . doi:10.1109/PRIME.2016.7519498

Efficient Digital Signal Processing Techniques and Architectures for On-Board Processors

Coskun, A., Kale, I., Morling, R.C.S., Hughes, R., Brown, S. and Angeletti, P. 2016. Efficient Digital Signal Processing Techniques and Architectures for On-Board Processors. *3rd ESA Workshop on Advanced Flexible Telecom Payloads.* Noordwijk, The Netherlands 21 - 24 Mar 2016 European Space Agency.

Interference Resilient Sigma Delta-Based Pulse Oximeter

Shokouhian, M., Morling, R.C.S. and Kale, I. 2016. Interference Resilient Sigma Delta-Based Pulse Oximeter. *IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems.* 10 (3), pp. 623-631. doi:10.1109/TBCAS.2015.2501359

A Novel Pressure Sensing Circuit for Non-invasive RF/Microwave Blood Glucose Sensors

Turgul, V. and Kale, I. 2016. A Novel Pressure Sensing Circuit for Non-invasive RF/Microwave Blood Glucose Sensors. *IEEE 16th Mediterranean Microwave Symposium (MMS2016).* Abu Dhabi 14 - 16 Nov 2016 IEEE . doi:10.1109/MMS.2016.7803818

The Use of Almost Linear Phase IIR filters In DFT Modulated Filter Banks for Communication Systems

de Cacqueray-Valmenier, M., Coskun, A. and Kale, I. 2016. The Use of Almost Linear Phase IIR filters In DFT Modulated Filter Banks for Communication Systems . *2016 IEEE 17th International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC).* Edinburgh 03 - 06 Jul 2016 IEEE . doi:10.1109/SPAWC.2016.7536754

Analysis of Thin Blood Images for Automated Malaria Diagnosis

Reni, S., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2015. Analysis of Thin Blood Images for Automated Malaria Diagnosis. *E-Health and Bioengineering Conference (EHB).* Iasi, Romania 19 - 21 Nov 2015 IEEE . doi:10.1109/EHB.2015.7391597

Time Interleaved Delta Sigma Modulator

Talebzadeh, J. and Kale, I. 2015. *Time Interleaved Delta Sigma Modulator.* WO2015/144771A1

Low Complexity All-Pass Based Polyphase Decimation Filters for ECG Monitoring

Eminaga, Y., Coskun, A., Moschos, S.A. and Kale, I. 2015. Low Complexity All-Pass Based Polyphase Decimation Filters for ECG Monitoring. *PRIME 2015, 11th Conference on PhD Research in Microelectronics and Electronics .* Glasgow, Scotland 30 Jun 2015 IEEE . doi:10.1109/PRIME.2015.7251400

Analysis of Thin Blood Images for Automated Malaria Diagnosis

Reni, S., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2015. Analysis of Thin Blood Images for Automated Malaria Diagnosis. *The 5th IEEE International Conference on E-Health and Bioengineering - EHB 2015.* Iaşi, Romania, November 19-21, 2015 19 Nov 2015 doi:10.1109/EHB.2015.7391597

Design and Implementation of Novel FPGA Based Time-Interleaved Variable Centre-Frequency Digital Sigma-Delta Modulators

Kalafat Kizilkaya, I., Al-Janabi, M. and Kale, I. 2015. Design and Implementation of Novel FPGA Based Time-Interleaved Variable Centre-Frequency Digital Sigma-Delta Modulators. *Special Issue of ACTA IMEKO Journal.* 4 (1), pp. 68-76.

IF-MANET: Interoperable Framework for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

Hassan, H., Trwoga, P. and Kale, I. 2015. IF-MANET: Interoperable Framework for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. *22st International Conference on Computer Networks (CN 2015).* Silesian University of Technology, Poland 17 Jun 2015 Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-19419-6_6

Robust localization and identification of African clawed frogs in digital images

Tek, F.B., Cannavo, F., Nunnari, G. and Kale, I. 2014. Robust localization and identification of African clawed frogs in digital images. *Ecological Informatics.* 23, pp. 3-12. doi:10.1016/j.ecoinf.2013.09.005

The Design of Low Complexity Low Power Pipelined Short Length Winograd Fourier Transforms

Coskun, A., Kale, I., Morling, R.C.S., Hughes, R., Brown, S. and Angeletti, P. 2014. The Design of Low Complexity Low Power Pipelined Short Length Winograd Fourier Transforms. *IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS).* Melbourne VIC, Australia 01 - 05 Jun 2014 IEEE . doi:10.1109/ISCAS.2014.6865556

Nonlinear Phase Filtering Effects on GNSS Receiver Positioning Accuracy

Cetinsel, S., Morling, R.C.S. and Kale, I. 2014. Nonlinear Phase Filtering Effects on GNSS Receiver Positioning Accuracy. *7th ESA Workshop on Satellite Navigation Technologies and European Workshop on GNSS Signals and Signal Processing (NAVITEC).* Noordwijk, Netherlands 03 Dec 2014

Real Time Blood Image Processing Application for Malaria Diagnosis Using Mobile Phones

Dallet, C., Reni, S. and Kale, I. 2014. Real Time Blood Image Processing Application for Malaria Diagnosis Using Mobile Phones. *IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systemss, ISCAS 2014.* Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 01 Jun 2014 IEEE . doi:10.1109/ISCAS.2014.6865657

Nonlinear stability prediction of multibit delta--sigma modulators for sinusoidal inputs

Lota, J., Al-Janabi, M. and Kale, I. 2014. Nonlinear stability prediction of multibit delta--sigma modulators for sinusoidal inputs. *IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement.* 63 (1), pp. 18-26. doi:10.1109/TIM.2013.2273597

A chip scale atomic clock driven receiver for multi-constellation GNSS

Ucar, A., Adane, Y., Bardak, B., Paparo, C., Berry, R. and Kale, I. 2013. A chip scale atomic clock driven receiver for multi-constellation GNSS. *Journal of Navigation.* 66 (3), pp. 449-464. doi:10.1017/S037346331300009X

Nonlinear model based approach for accurate stability prediction of one-bit higher-order delta-sigma (Δ-Σ) modulators

Lota, J., Al-Janabi, M. and Kale, I. 2013. Nonlinear model based approach for accurate stability prediction of one-bit higher-order delta-sigma (Δ-Σ) modulators. *IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement.* 62 (4), pp. 686-692. doi:10.1109/TIM.2013.2241533

Efficient Coefficient Store in Decomposed DFT/FFT Architectures for On-Board Processors

Coskun, A., Kale, I., Morling, R.C.S., Cetinsel, S., Hughes, R., Brown, S. and Angeletti, P. 2013. Efficient Coefficient Store in Decomposed DFT/FFT Architectures for On-Board Processors. *31st AIAA International Communications Satellite Systems Conference.* Florence, Italy 17 Oct 2013 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

NFC RF Analog Challenge and Enhanced High Speed Transmitter Design

Mwalula, L., Al-Janabi, M. and Kale, I. 2013. NFC RF Analog Challenge and Enhanced High Speed Transmitter Design. *19th IMEKO TC-4 Symposium Measurements of Electrical Quantities.* Barcelona, Spain 18 Jul 2013

Novel Time-Interleaved Variable-Center Frequency Σ-∆ Modulators - Design, Analysis and Critical Evaluation

Kalafat Kizilkaya, I., Al-Janabi, M. and Kale, I. 2013. Novel Time-Interleaved Variable-Center Frequency Σ-∆ Modulators - Design, Analysis and Critical Evaluation. *IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference.* Minneapolis, USA 06 May 2013

Design and Evaluation of Time-Interleaved Variable Center-Frequency Sigma-Delta Modulators

Kalafat Kizilkaya, I., Al-Janabi, M. and Kale, I. 2013. Design and Evaluation of Time-Interleaved Variable Center-Frequency Sigma-Delta Modulators. *18th International Conference on Digital Signal Processing.* Santorini, Greece 01 Jul 2013 IEEE . doi:10.1109/ICDSP.2013.6622778

Halfband IIR Filter Alternatives for On-Board Digital Channelisation

Coskun, A., Kale, I., Morling, R.C.S., Hughes, R., Brown, S. and Angeletti, P. 2013. Halfband IIR Filter Alternatives for On-Board Digital Channelisation. *31st AIAA International Communications Satellite Systems Conference.* Florence, Italy 17 Oct 2013 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi:10.2514/6.2013-5711

Novel time-interleaved variable centre-frequency, single-bit A/D and D/A Sigma-Delta modulator topologies

Kalafat Kızılkaya, I., Al-Janabi, M. and Kale, I. 2013. Novel time-interleaved variable centre-frequency, single-bit A/D and D/A Sigma-Delta modulator topologies. in: 19th IMEKO TC-4, 2013, July 18-19: Symposium Measurements of Electrical Quantities: Barcelona, Spain Barcelona Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC). pp. 599-604

All-adaptive blind matched filtering for the equalization and identification of multipath channels: a practical approach

Coskun, A. and Kale, I. 2012. All-adaptive blind matched filtering for the equalization and identification of multipath channels: a practical approach. *IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications.* 60 (1), pp. 232-242. doi:10.1109/TCSI.2012.2215711

A continuous-time delta-sigma modulator for RF subsampling receivers

Ucar, A., Cetin, E. and Kale, I. 2012. A continuous-time delta-sigma modulator for RF subsampling receivers. *IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II.* 59 (5), pp. 272-276. doi:10.1109/TCSII.2012.2190860

Accurate stability prediction of one-bit higher-order delta-sigma (Δ-Σ) modulators for multiple-sinusoidal inputs

Lota, J., Al-Janabi, M. and Kale, I. 2012. Accurate stability prediction of one-bit higher-order delta-sigma (Δ-Σ) modulators for multiple-sinusoidal inputs. *IET Circuits, Devices & Systems.* 6 (2), pp. 71-78. doi:10.1049/iet-cds.2011.0194

A Comparative Study of a Low Doppler Shift in a Carrier Tracking Loop for GPS

Cetinsel, S., Morling, R.C.S. and Kale, I. 2012. A Comparative Study of a Low Doppler Shift in a Carrier Tracking Loop for GPS. *2012 IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems (APCCAS).* Kaohsiung, Taiwan 02 Dec 2012 IEEE . doi:10.1109/APCCAS.2012.6419011

Automated Malaria Parasite Detection in Thin Blood Films:- A Hybrid, Illumination and Colour Constancy Insensitive Morphological Approach

Reni, S., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2012. Automated Malaria Parasite Detection in Thin Blood Films:- A Hybrid, Illumination and Colour Constancy Insensitive Morphological Approach. *IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems, Proceedings, APCCAS.* Kaohsiung, Taiwan 02 Dec 2012 IEEE . doi:10.1109/APCCAS.2012.6419016

Automated P.falciparum detection system for post-treatment malaria diagnosis using modified annular ring ratio method

Kareem, S., Kale, I., Morling, R.C.S. and Reni, S. 2012. Automated P.falciparum detection system for post-treatment malaria diagnosis using modified annular ring ratio method. in: Al-Dabass, D., Orsoni, A. and Cant, R. (ed.) Proceedings of the 2012 UKSim 14th International Conference on Computer Modelling and Simulation (UKSim), Cambridge, 28-30 March 2012 IEEE . pp. 432-436

Comparative performance analysis of a streamlined iteration cancellation technique for MIMO-OFDM systems with memoryless nonlinearity

Barjamovic, D. and Kale, I. 2012. Comparative performance analysis of a streamlined iteration cancellation technique for MIMO-OFDM systems with memoryless nonlinearity. *IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems.* Kaohsiung, Taiwan 02-05 December 2012

Cost effective estimation and equalization of frequency selective channels for transmit diversity

Coskun, A. and Kale, I. 2011. Cost effective estimation and equalization of frequency selective channels for transmit diversity. in: IEEE 7th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), 4-8 July 2011 IEEE . pp. 1429-1432

A novel method to count the red blood cells in thin blood films

Kareem, S., Morling, R.C.S., Kale, I. and Reni, S. 2011. A novel method to count the red blood cells in thin blood films. in: Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Rio de Janeiro, 15-18 May 2011 IEEE . pp. 1021-1024

Stability analysis of bandpass sigma–delta modulators for single and dual tone sinusoidal inputs

Altinok, G., Al-Janabi, M., Kale, I. and Altinok, G. 2011. Stability analysis of bandpass sigma–delta modulators for single and dual tone sinusoidal inputs. *IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement.* 60 (5), pp. 1546 -1554. doi:10.1109/TIM.2010.2102395

An FPGA based decimation filter processor design for real-time continuous-time Σ−Δ modulator performance measurement and evaluation

Cetinsel, S., Morling, R.C.S. and Kale, I. 2011. An FPGA based decimation filter processor design for real-time continuous-time Σ−Δ modulator performance measurement and evaluation. *20th European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD).* Linkoping, Sweden 29 Aug 2011 IEEE . doi:10.1109/ECCTD.2011.6043370

Improved ultrasound digital beamforming using single-bit sigma-delta modulators with band-pass decimation filters

Altinok, G., Al-Janabi, M., Kale, I. and Altinok, G. 2011. Improved ultrasound digital beamforming using single-bit sigma-delta modulators with band-pass decimation filters. in: Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 15-18 May 2011 IEEE . pp. 2091-2094

Improved sigma-delta ultrasound beamformers with adaptive low-pass decimation filters

Altinok, G., Al-Janabi, M., Kale, I. and Altinok, G. 2011. Improved sigma-delta ultrasound beamformers with adaptive low-pass decimation filters. in: Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC), Hangzhou, China, 10-12 May 2011 IEEE . pp. 329-333

Dual-tracking multi-constellation GNSS front-end for high-performance receiver applications

Adane, Y., Ucar, A. and Kale, I. 2011. Dual-tracking multi-constellation GNSS front-end for high-performance receiver applications. *24th International Technical Meeting of The Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS 2011).* Portland, Oregon pp. 803-807

Blind multidimensional matched filtering techniques for single input multiple output communications

Coskun, A. and Kale, I. 2010. Blind multidimensional matched filtering techniques for single input multiple output communications. *IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement.* 59 (5), pp. 1056-1064. doi:10.1109/TIM.2009.2038291

An assessment of project based learning (PBL) environment based on the perceptions of students: a short course case study on circuit design for VLSI

Iscioglu, E. and Kale, I. 2010. An assessment of project based learning (PBL) environment based on the perceptions of students: a short course case study on circuit design for VLSI. *International Journal of Engineering Education.* 26 (3).

Blind matched filtering for multiple input multiple output transceivers

Coskun, A. and Kale, I. 2010. Blind matched filtering for multiple input multiple output transceivers. in: Proceedings of the IEEE Intrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Texas, USA, May 3-6 2010 (I2MTC 2010) IEEE . pp. 633-636

A describing function based method for predicting the stability of higher-order high-pass sigma-delta modulators

Altinok, G., Al-Janabi, M., Kale, I. and Altinok, G. 2010. A describing function based method for predicting the stability of higher-order high-pass sigma-delta modulators. in: 2010 Conference on Research in Microelectronics and Electronics (PRIME), 18-21 July 2010 IEEE . pp. 1-4

Stability predictions for higher-order band-pass sigma-delta modulators for dual sinusoidal inputs

Altinok, G., Al-Janabi, M., Kale, I. and Altinok, G. 2010. Stability predictions for higher-order band-pass sigma-delta modulators for dual sinusoidal inputs. in: Proceedings of the IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Texas, USA, May 3-6 2010 (I3MTC 2010) IEEE . pp. 541-545

Parasite detection and identification for automated thin blood film malaria diagnosis

Tek, F.B., Dempster, A.G. and Kale, I. 2010. Parasite detection and identification for automated thin blood film malaria diagnosis. *Computer Vision and Image Understanding.* 114 (1), pp. 21-32. doi:10.1016/j.cviu.2009.08.003

Parallel decoding of turbo codes using multi-point trellis termination and collision-free interleavers

Taskaldiran, M., Morling, R.C.S. and Kale, I. 2009. Parallel decoding of turbo codes using multi-point trellis termination and collision-free interleavers. in: Wireless Telecommunications Symposium 2009. WTS 2009 IEEE . pp. 1-5

Blind correlation-based DFE receiver for the equalization of single input multi output communication channels

Coskun, A. and Kale, I. 2009. Blind correlation-based DFE receiver for the equalization of single input multi output communication channels. in: Wireless Telecommunications Symposium 2009. WTS 2009 IEEE . pp. 1-5

The effect of clock jitter on the performance of continuous-time delta-sigma ADC for GNSS signals

Ucar, A., Cetin, E. and Kale, I. 2009. The effect of clock jitter on the performance of continuous-time delta-sigma ADC for GNSS signals. *Proceedings of the European Navigation Conference (ENC-GNSS’09).* Naples, Italy 03 - 06 May 2009

The practical limits of MASH Delta-Sigma Modulators designed to maintain very long controllable sequence lengths for structured tone mitigation

Telli, A.T. and Kale, I. 2009. The practical limits of MASH Delta-Sigma Modulators designed to maintain very long controllable sequence lengths for structured tone mitigation. in: Proceedings of the 10th IEEE Annual Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference (WAMICON '09) IEEE . pp. 1-5

Structured tone mitigation in 3rd and 4th order MASH Delta-Sigma Modulators-comparative study

Telli, A.T. and Kale, I. 2009. Structured tone mitigation in 3rd and 4th order MASH Delta-Sigma Modulators-comparative study. in: Proceedings of the 10th IEEE Annual Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference (WAMICON '09) IEEE . pp. 1-5

Global navigation satellite systems-overview

Telli, A.T. and Kale, I. 2009. Global navigation satellite systems-overview. *Highlights in Micro-technology.* Neuchatel, Switzerland 03 - 04 Jul 2009

Computer vision for microscopy diagnosis of malaria

Tek, F.B., Dempster, A.G. and Kale, I. 2009. Computer vision for microscopy diagnosis of malaria. *Malaria Journal.* 8, p. 153. doi:10.1186/1475-2875-8-153

Increasing the speed of parallel decoding of turbo codes

Taskaldiran, M., Morling, R.C.S. and Kale, I. 2009. Increasing the speed of parallel decoding of turbo codes. in: PRIME: 2009 PhD Research in Microelectronics and Electronics. Proceedings. Cork, Ireland, 12-17 July 2009 IEEE . pp. 304-307

Weak signal and multipath analysis using GNSScope: a toolbox for end-to-end modeling, simulation and analysis of GNSS

Kazazoglu, R., Ucar, A., Cetin, E. and Kale, I. 2009. Weak signal and multipath analysis using GNSScope: a toolbox for end-to-end modeling, simulation and analysis of GNSS. in: Royal Institute of Navigation Annual Conference and Exhibition 2008 and 37th ILA Annual Convention and Technical Symposium (NAV 08/ILA 37): proceedings of a meeting held 28-30 October 2008, London, United Kingdom Curran Associates.

A low complexity cross-correlation interference mitigation technique for GNSS

Kazazoglu, R., Cetin, E. and Kale, I. 2009. A low complexity cross-correlation interference mitigation technique for GNSS. *Proceedings of the European Navigation Conference (ENC-GNSS’09).* Naples, Italy 03 - 06 May 2009

The GNSScope toolbox and novel tracking techniques

Kazazoglu, R., Cetin, E. and Kale, I. 2009. The GNSScope toolbox and novel tracking techniques. *School of ECS Research Conference.* University of Westminster, London 25 - 26 Jun 2009

GNSScope and the split chip compression technique

Kazazoglu, R., Cetin, E. and Kale, I. 2009. GNSScope and the split chip compression technique. in: Proceedings of the European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design, 23-27 August 2009, Antalya, Turkey (ECCTD 2009) IEEE . pp. 379-382

Class-AB rail-to-rail CMOS buffer with bulk-driven super source followers

Haga, Y. and Kale, I. 2009. Class-AB rail-to-rail CMOS buffer with bulk-driven super source followers. in: Proceedings of the European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design, 23-27 August 2009, Antalya, Turkey (ECCTD 2009) IEEE . pp. 379-382

CMOS buffer using complementary pair of bulk-driven super source followers

Haga, Y. and Kale, I. 2009. CMOS buffer using complementary pair of bulk-driven super source followers. *Electronics Letters.* 45 (18), pp. 917-918. doi:10.1049/el.2009.1382

Bulk-driven flipped voltage follower

Haga, Y. and Kale, I. 2009. Bulk-driven flipped voltage follower. in: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2009 (ISCAS 2009) IEEE . pp. 2717-2720

Extending the applications and improving the efficiency of positioning through the exploitation of new GNSS signals

Cross, P., Ziebart, M., Lau, L., Ochieng, W., Feng, S., Moore, T., Hill, C., Yang, L., Hancock, C., Kale, I. and Kazazoglu, R. 2009. Extending the applications and improving the efficiency of positioning through the exploitation of new GNSS signals. *Proceedings of the European Navigation Conference (ENC-GNSS’09).* Naples, Italy 03 - 06 May 2009

A blind implementation of multi-dimensional matched filtering in a Maximum-Likelihood receiver for SIMO channels

Coskun, A. and Kale, I. 2009. A blind implementation of multi-dimensional matched filtering in a Maximum-Likelihood receiver for SIMO channels. in: Proceedings of the IEEE Intrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC '09) IEEE . pp. 633-637

Multi-dimensional matched filter identification technique for channel equalization deployed in spatial diversity receivers

Coskun, A. and Kale, I. 2009. Multi-dimensional matched filter identification technique for channel equalization deployed in spatial diversity receivers. in: PRIME: 2009 PhD Research in Microelectronics and Electronics. Proceedings. Cork, Ireland, 12-17 July 2009 IEEE . pp. 36-39

Design of a power-aware digital image rejection receiver

Cetin, E., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2009. Design of a power-aware digital image rejection receiver. in: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2009 (ISCAS 2009) IEEE . pp. 209-212

A GUI driven Σ-Δ modulator design, evaluation and measurement tool with a view to practical implementation

Altinok, G., Al-Janabi, M., Kale, I. and Altinok, G. 2009. A GUI driven Σ-Δ modulator design, evaluation and measurement tool with a view to practical implementation. in: IEEE Intrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Singapore, May 2009. I2MTC '09 IEEE . pp. 1022-1025

RF front-end design for full constellation SDR based GNSS receivers

Adane, Y. and Kale, I. 2009. RF front-end design for full constellation SDR based GNSS receivers. in: International GNSS conference, IGNSS 2009 Conference & Exhibition, Book of abstracts for Oral and Poster Presentations, Dec 1 - 3 2009, Holiday Inn Hotel, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia International Global Navigation Satellite Systems. pp. 38

GNSScope: a toolbox for end-to-end modeling, simulation and analysis of GNSS

Kazazoglu, R., Cetin, E. and Kale, I. 2008. GNSScope: a toolbox for end-to-end modeling, simulation and analysis of GNSS. *The Navigation Exhibition.* The Royal Institute of Navigation, London Jun 2008

Nonlinear-stability analysis of higher order ∆ –Σ modulators for DC and sinusoidal inputs

Lota, J., Al-Janabi, M. and Kale, I. 2008. Nonlinear-stability analysis of higher order ∆ –Σ modulators for DC and sinusoidal inputs. *IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement.* 57 (3), pp. 530-542. doi:10.1109/TIM.2007.911640

A system for calculating the greatest common denominator implemented using asynchrobatic logic

Willingham, D.J. and Kale, I. 2008. A system for calculating the greatest common denominator implemented using asynchrobatic logic. in: Ellervee, P., Jervan, G. and Nielsen, I.R. (ed.) 26th Norchip Conference, Tallinn, Estonia, 17 - 18 November 2008. Formal proceedings IEEE . pp. 194-197

An asynchrobatic, radix-four, carry look-ahead adder

Willingham, D.J. and Kale, I. 2008. An asynchrobatic, radix-four, carry look-ahead adder. in: PRIME: 2008 PhD Research in Microelectronics and Electronics. Proceedings. Istanbul, Turkey, June 22–25, 2008 IEEE . pp. 105-108

Using positive feedback adiabatic logic to implement reversible Toffoli gates

Willingham, D.J. and Kale, I. 2008. Using positive feedback adiabatic logic to implement reversible Toffoli gates. in: Ellervee, P., Jervan, G. and Nielsen, I.R. (ed.) 26th Norchip Conference, Tallinn, Estonia, 17 - 18 November 2008. Formal proceedings IEEE . pp. 5-8

Weak signal and multipath analysis using GNSScope: a toolbox for end-to-end modelling, simulation and analysis of GNSS systems

Ucar, A., Kazazoglu, R., Cetin, E. and Kale, I. 2008. Weak signal and multipath analysis using GNSScope: a toolbox for end-to-end modelling, simulation and analysis of GNSS systems. *NAV08/ILA37 The Navigation Conference & Exhibition: Navigation and Location.* Church House, Westminster, London 28 - 30 Oct 2008

GNSScope: overview of a toolbox for end-to-end modelling, simulation and analysis of GNSS systems

Ucar, A., Kazazoglu, R., Cetin, E. and Kale, I. 2008. GNSScope: overview of a toolbox for end-to-end modelling, simulation and analysis of GNSS systems. *New Navigator Seminar 2008.* Imperial College, London 18 Jun 2008

A reconfigurable SDR receiver for multi-mode GNSS applications

Ucar, A., Cetin, E. and Kale, I. 2008. A reconfigurable SDR receiver for multi-mode GNSS applications. *Proceedings of the SDR Forum Technical Conference.* Washington, D.C. 26 - 30 Oct 2008

A low complexity DSP driven analog impairment mitigation scheme for low-IF GNSS receivers

Ucar, A., Cetin, E. and Kale, I. 2008. A low complexity DSP driven analog impairment mitigation scheme for low-IF GNSS receivers. in: Proceedings of the IEEE/ION Position, Location and Navigation Symposium 2008: May 6 - 8, 2008, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey, California Los Alamitos, USA IEEE . pp. 865-870

On the implications of analog to digital conversion on variable-rate bandpass sampling GNSS receivers

Ucar, A., Cetin, E. and Kale, I. 2008. On the implications of analog to digital conversion on variable-rate bandpass sampling GNSS receivers. *Proceedings of the Forty-second Asilomar Conference on Signals Systems and Computers.* Asilomar Hotel and Conference Grounds, Pacific Grove, CA 26 - 29 Oct 2008

System and circuit level design and analysis of a 16-bit sigma-delta ADC for a TETRA-2 network mobile station application

Lota, J., Al-Janabi, M. and Kale, I. 2008. System and circuit level design and analysis of a 16-bit sigma-delta ADC for a TETRA-2 network mobile station application. in: 2008 IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference Proceedings. IMTC 2008 IEEE . pp. 663-667

Rail-to-rail CMOS op-amp input stage using level-shift multiplexing technique

Haga, Y. and Kale, I. 2008. Rail-to-rail CMOS op-amp input stage using level-shift multiplexing technique. *Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical Engineers Japan, IEEJ International Analog VLSI Workshop.* Hyatt Regency Hotel, Istanbul, Turkey 30 Jul - 01 Aug 2009

Achieving rail-to-rail input operation using level-shift multiplexing technique for all CMOS op-amps

Haga, Y. and Kale, I. 2008. Achieving rail-to-rail input operation using level-shift multiplexing technique for all CMOS op-amps. in: Proceedings of the 51st Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2008 (MWSCAS 2008) IEEE . pp. 698-701

Design and low-power implementation of an adaptive image rejection receiver

Cetin, E., Topcu, S., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2008. Design and low-power implementation of an adaptive image rejection receiver. in: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, (ISCAS 2008): May 18-21, 2008, Seattle, Washington, USA Los Alamitos, USA IEEE . pp. 3146-3149

A fully CNN based fingerprint recognition system

Abrishambaf, R., Demirel, H. and Kale, I. 2008. A fully CNN based fingerprint recognition system. in: IEEE 11th Cellular Neural Networks and Their Applications (CNNA 2008) IEEE . pp. 146-149

Establishing the finite word-length parameters for a CNN based fingerprint recognition system

Abrishambaf, R., Demirel, H. and Kale, I. 2008. Establishing the finite word-length parameters for a CNN based fingerprint recognition system. *Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Electrical and Computer Systems (EECS'08).* Gemikonagi, Cyprus 27 - 28 Nov 2008

A comparative study on the modified Max-Log-MAP turbodecoding by extrinsic information scaling

Taskaldiran, M., Morling, R.C.S. and Kale, I. 2007. A comparative study on the modified Max-Log-MAP turbodecoding by extrinsic information scaling. *IEEE 5th Annual Wireless Telecommunication Symposium (WTS 2007).* doi:10.1109/WTS.2007.4563294

Attracting more entrants into engineering: the UK perspective

Maillardet, F.J., Martland, F. and Morling, R.C.S. 2007. Attracting more entrants into engineering: the UK perspective. *IEEE International Conference on Meeting the Growing Demand for Engineers and Their Educators 2010-2020.* Munich, Germany 09 - 11 Nov 2007

Tonality index of sigma-delta modulators: a psychoacoustics model based approach

Lota, J., Al-Janabi, M. and Kale, I. 2007. Tonality index of sigma-delta modulators: a psychoacoustics model based approach. in: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems 2007, (ISCAS 2007) Los Alamitos, USA IEEE . pp. 729-732

Stability analysis of higher-order delta-sigma modulators for sinusoidal inputs

Lota, J., Al-Janabi, M. and Kale, I. 2007. Stability analysis of higher-order delta-sigma modulators for sinusoidal inputs. in: Proceedings of the IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Warsaw, Poland, May 1-3, 2007 Los Alamitos, USA IEEE .

Living and dealing with RF impairments in communication transceivers

Cetin, E., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2007. Living and dealing with RF impairments in communication transceivers. in: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems 2007, (ISCAS 2007) Los Alamitos, USA IEEE . pp. 21-24

Analysis and compensation of RF impairments for next generation multimode GNSS receivers

Cetin, E., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2007. Analysis and compensation of RF impairments for next generation multimode GNSS receivers. in: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems 2007, (ISCAS 2007) Los Alamitos, USA IEEE . pp. 1729-1732

Satellite radio navigation receivers

Cetin, E., Kale, I., Morling, R.C.S. and Dempster, A.G. 2006. *Satellite radio navigation receivers.*

Partial equalization of non-minimum-phase impulse responses

Maamar, A., Kale, I., Krukowski, A.M. and Daoud, B. 2006. Partial equalization of non-minimum-phase impulse responses. *EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing.* 2006 (Article ID 67467), p. 8 pages. doi:10.1155/ASP/2006/67467

A new structure for capacitor-mismatch-insensitive multiply-by-two amplification

Zare-Hoseini, H., Shoaei, O. and Kale, I. 2006. A new structure for capacitor-mismatch-insensitive multiply-by-two amplification. in: 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. ISCAS 2006. Proceedings. Los Alamitos, USA IEEE . pp. 4879-4882

Continuous time delta sigma modulators with reduced clock jitter sensitivity

Zare-Hoseini, H. and Kale, I. 2006. Continuous time delta sigma modulators with reduced clock jitter sensitivity. in: 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. ISCAS 2006. Proceedings. Los Alamitos, USA IEEE . pp. 5371-5374

A multimode fully software configurable GNSS receiver: a focus on Galileo

Telli, A.T., Cetin, E. and Kale, I. 2006. A multimode fully software configurable GNSS receiver: a focus on Galileo. *Transport in 7th FP.* Warsaw, Poland 06-07 Jun 2006

A digitally configurable fully integrated receiver chip for GALILEO ground terminals - GaliSys

Telli, A.T., Cetin, E. and Kale, I. 2006. A digitally configurable fully integrated receiver chip for GALILEO ground terminals - GaliSys. *3rd ESA Workshop on Satellite Navigation User Equipment Technologies (NAVITEC '2006).* Noordwijk, The Netherlands 11-14 Dec 2006

GaliSys: fully integrated software configurable receiver integrated circuit(s) (ICs) for GALILEO radio navigation satellite systems and it's applications in disaster management and rehabilitation

Telli, A.T., Cetin, E. and Kale, I. 2006. GaliSys: fully integrated software configurable receiver integrated circuit(s) (ICs) for GALILEO radio navigation satellite systems and it's applications in disaster management and rehabilitation. *1st International Conference on Advances in Space Technologies: Space Technologies for Disaster Management and Rehabilitation.* Islamabad, Pakistan 02-03 Sep 2006

A colour normalization method for giemsa-stained blood cell images

Tek, F.B., Dempster, A.G. and Kale, I. 2006. A colour normalization method for giemsa-stained blood cell images. in: 2006 IEEE 14th Signal Processing and Communications Applications, Antalya Turkey, 17-19 April 2006 IEEE . pp. 1-4

Malaria parasite detection in peripheral blood images

Tek, F.B., Dempster, A.G. and Kale, I. 2006. Malaria parasite detection in peripheral blood images. in: Medical Image Understanding and Analysis (MIUA 2006): 4th-5th July 2006, University of Manchester BMVA.

Malaria parasite detection in peripheral blood images

Tek, F.B., Dempster, A.G. and Kale, I. 2006. Malaria parasite detection in peripheral blood images. in: Chantler, M.J., Trucco, E. and Fisher, R.B. (ed.) British Machine Vision Conference 2006 (BMVC 2006) Edinburgh, UK BMVA.

Room equalization based on iterative simple complex smoothing of acoustic impulse responses

Maamar, A., Kale, I. and Daoud, B. 2006. Room equalization based on iterative simple complex smoothing of acoustic impulse responses. in: 2006 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing. ICASSP 2006 Proceedings. Los Alamitos, USA IEEE . pp. V109-V112

Stability analysis of higher-order delta-sigma modulators using the describing function method

Lota, J., Al-Janabi, M. and Kale, I. 2006. Stability analysis of higher-order delta-sigma modulators using the describing function method. in: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2006: ISCAS 2006 Los Alamitos, USA IEEE . pp. 593-596

Complex frequency transformations for DSP applications

Krukowski, A.M., Kale, I. and Cain, G.D. 2006. Complex frequency transformations for DSP applications. in: Logothetis, M.D. and Ghassemlooy, Z. (ed.) Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP): 19-21 July 2006, Patras Univ. Conference Centre, Patras, Greece Newcastle upon Tyne, UK CSNDSP. pp. 722-726

Analysis of the polyphase IIR structure in the constraint coefficient space

Krukowski, A.M. and Kale, I. 2006. Analysis of the polyphase IIR structure in the constraint coefficient space. in: Logothetis, M.D. and Ghassemlooy, Z. (ed.) Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP): 19-21 July 2006, Patras Univ. Conference Centre, Patras, Greece Newcastle upon Tyne, UK CSNDSP. pp. 727-730

A computationally efficient DAB bit-stream processor

Kazazoglu, R., Demirsoy, S.S., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2006. A computationally efficient DAB bit-stream processor. in: 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. ISCAS 2006. Proceedings. Los Alamitos, USA IEEE . pp. 5543-5546

A high-speed, low-power interleaved trace-back memory for Viterbi decoder

Israsena, P. and Kale, I. 2006. A high-speed, low-power interleaved trace-back memory for Viterbi decoder. in: 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. ISCAS 2006. Proceedings. Los Alamitos, USA IEEE . pp. 2801-2804

A Viterbi decoder with low-power trace-back memory structure for wireless pervasive communications

Israsena, P. and Kale, I. 2006. A Viterbi decoder with low-power trace-back memory structure for wireless pervasive communications. in: 1st International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing, 2006 Los Alamitos, USA IEEE .

A new bulk-driven input stage design for sub 1-volt CMOS op-amps

Haga, Y., Morling, R.C.S. and Kale, I. 2006. A new bulk-driven input stage design for sub 1-volt CMOS op-amps. in: 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. ISCAS 2006. Proceedings. Los Alamitos, USA IEEE . pp. 1547-1550

Efficient low-power design and implementation of IQ-imbalance compensator using early termination

Cetin, E., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2006. Efficient low-power design and implementation of IQ-imbalance compensator using early termination. in: Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, May 21-24, 2006, Island of Kos, Greece, (ISCAS 2006) Los Alamitos, USA IEEE . pp. 4995-4998

A low-complexity self-calibrating adaptive quadrature receiver

Cetin, E., Demirsoy, S.S., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2006. A low-complexity self-calibrating adaptive quadrature receiver. in: Stoica, A., Arslan, T., Suess, M., Yalçın, S., Keymeulen, D., Higuchi, T., Zebulum, R. and Aydin, N. (ed.) Proceedings of the First NASA/ESA Conference on Adaptive Hardware and Systems, 15-18 June 2006, Istanbul, Turkey (AHS 2006) Los Alamitos, USA IEEE . pp. 428-435

A modeling platform for efficient characterization of phase-locked loop /spl Delta/-/spl Sigma/ frequency synthesizers

Bourdi, T., Borjak, A. and Kale, I. 2006. A modeling platform for efficient characterization of phase-locked loop /spl Delta/-/spl Sigma/ frequency synthesizers. in: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2006: ISCAS 2006 Los Alamitos, USA IEEE . pp. 3221-3224

Highly linear transconductance topology using floating transistors

Zare-Hoseini, H., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2006. Highly linear transconductance topology using floating transistors. *Electronics Letters.* 42 (1), pp. 2-4. doi:10.1049/el:20063846

Communications system

Cetin, E., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2005. *Communications system.*

Modeling of switched-capacitor delta-sigma Modulators in SIMULINK

Zare-Hoseini, H., Kale, I. and Shoaei, O. 2005. Modeling of switched-capacitor delta-sigma Modulators in SIMULINK. *IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement.* 54 (4), pp. 1646-1654. doi:10.1109/TIM.2005.851085

A study on the effects of accumulated and independent clock jitter on discrete-time delta-sigma modulators

Lota, J., Al-Janabi, M. and Kale, I. 2005. A study on the effects of accumulated and independent clock jitter on discrete-time delta-sigma modulators. in: IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 2005 IEEE . pp. 786-790

Synthesis of reconfigurable multiplier blocks: part II: algorithm

Demirsoy, S.S., Kale, I. and Dempster, A.G. 2005. Synthesis of reconfigurable multiplier blocks: part II: algorithm. in: IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems 2005 Piscataway, N.J., USA IEEE .

Synthesis of reconfigurable multiplier blocks: part I: fundamentals

Demirsoy, S.S., Kale, I. and Dempster, A.G. 2005. Synthesis of reconfigurable multiplier blocks: part I: fundamentals. in: IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems 2005 Piscataway, N.J., USA IEEE .

Efficient implementation of digital filters using novel reconfiguaration multiplier blocks (REMB)

Demirsoy, S.S., Dempster, A.G. and Kale, I. 2005. Efficient implementation of digital filters using novel reconfiguaration multiplier blocks (REMB). in: Conference record of the Thirty-Eighth Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, 2004: November 7-10, 2004, Pacific Grove, California Piscataway, N.J., USA IEEE .

Joint compensation of IQ-imbalance and carrier phase sychronization errors in communication receivers

Cetin, E., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2005. Joint compensation of IQ-imbalance and carrier phase sychronization errors in communication receivers. in: IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS): May 23-26, 2005, International Conference Center, Kobe, Japan: conference proceedings Piscataway, N.J., USA IEEE . pp. 4481-4484

Efficient FPGA implementation of an adaptive IQ-imbalance corrector for communication receivers using reduced range multipliers

Cetin, E., Demirsoy, S.S., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2005. Efficient FPGA implementation of an adaptive IQ-imbalance corrector for communication receivers using reduced range multipliers. *13th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO).* Antalya, Turkey 04-08 Sep 2005

Rigorous analysis of delta-sigma modulators for fractional-N PLL frequency synthesis

Kozak, M. and Kale, I. 2004. Rigorous analysis of delta-sigma modulators for fractional-N PLL frequency synthesis. *IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications.* 51 (6), pp. 1148-1162. doi:10.1109/TCSI.2004.829308

On various low-hardware-complexity LMS algorithms for adaptive I/Q correction in quadrature receivers

Cetin, E., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2004. On various low-hardware-complexity LMS algorithms for adaptive I/Q correction in quadrature receivers. in: Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, May 23 - 26, 2004, Sheraton Vancouver Wall Centre Hotel, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada USA IEEE . pp. 461-464

Adaptive self-calibrating image rejection receiver

Cetin, E., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2004. Adaptive self-calibrating image rejection receiver. in: 2004 IEEE International Conference on Communications: 20-24 June 2004, Paris conference proceedings Piscataway, N.J., USA IEEE .

Performance analysis of PC-based development systems with onboard ADC/DACs for digital signal processing applications

Macii, D., Demirsoy, S.S., Carbone, P. and Kale, I. 2003. Performance analysis of PC-based development systems with onboard ADC/DACs for digital signal processing applications. *Eighth IMEKO TC-4 Workshop on ADC Modelling and Testing.* Perugia, Italy 08-10 Sep 2003

Reconfigurable implementation of recursive DCT kernels for reduced quantization noise

Dempster, A.G., Beck, R., Demirsoy, S.S. and Kale, I. 2003. Reconfigurable implementation of recursive DCT kernels for reduced quantization noise. in: Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS '03) USA IEEE .

Design guidelines for reconfigurable multiplier blocks

Demirsoy, S.S., Dempster, A.G. and Kale, I. 2003. Design guidelines for reconfigurable multiplier blocks. in: 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems Las Alamitos, USA IEEE .

Performance of an adaptive homodyne receiver in the presence of multipath, Rayleigh-fading and time-varying quadrature errors

Cetin, E., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2003. Performance of an adaptive homodyne receiver in the presence of multipath, Rayleigh-fading and time-varying quadrature errors. in: Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2003, (ISCAS '03), Sunday, May 25 - Wednesday, May 28, 2003, Imperial Queen's Park Hotel, Bangkok, Thailand USA IEEE .

Quantization effects in the polyphase N-path IIR structure

Krukowski, A.M., Morling, R.C.S. and Kale, I. 2002. Quantization effects in the polyphase N-path IIR structure. *IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement.* 51 (6), pp. 1271-1278. doi:10.1109/TIM.2002.808032

Designing multiplier blocks with low logic depth

Dempster, A.G., Demirsoy, S.S. and Kale, I. 2002. Designing multiplier blocks with low logic depth. in: IEEE ISCAS International Symposium on Circuits and Systems USA IEEE .

Power consumption behaviour of multiplier block algorithms

Demirsoy, S.S., Dempster, A.G. and Kale, I. 2002. Power consumption behaviour of multiplier block algorithms. in: Proceedings of the 2002 45th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems Las Alamitos, USA IEEE .

Power analysis of multiplier blocks

Demirsoy, S.S., Dempster, A.G. and Kale, I. 2002. Power analysis of multiplier blocks. in: IEEE ISCAS International Symposium on Circuits & Systems USA IEEE .

On the structure, convergence and performance of an adaptive I/Q mismatch corrector

Cetin, E., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2002. On the structure, convergence and performance of an adaptive I/Q mismatch corrector. in: 2002 IEEE 56th Vehicular Technology Conference Proceedings: 24-28 September 2002, Vancouver, Canada, (VTC2002) USA IEEE .

On the structure and performance of a novel blind source separation based carrier phase synchronization error compensator

Cetin, E., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2002. On the structure and performance of a novel blind source separation based carrier phase synchronization error compensator. in: Proceedings of the 45th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, August 4-7, 2002, Tulsa, Oklahoma Las Alamitos, USA IEEE .

On the performance of a blind source separation based I/Q-corrector

Cetin, E., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2002. On the performance of a blind source separation based I/Q-corrector. in: RAWCON 2002: 2002 IEEE Radio and Wireless Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, August 11-14, 2002 Las Alamitos, USA IEEE . pp. 99-102

Correction of transmitter gain and phase errors at the receiver

Cetin, E., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2002. Correction of transmitter gain and phase errors at the receiver. in: Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, May 26 - 29, 2002, Fairmont Scottsdale Princess, Phoenix-Scottsdale, Arizona, USA Las Alamitos, USA IEEE .

Methods for the transfer function design of multiple narrow-band bandpass sigma-delta modulators

Al-Janabi, M., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2001. Methods for the transfer function design of multiple narrow-band bandpass sigma-delta modulators. *Computer Standards & Interfaces.* 23 (2), pp. 85-102. doi:10.1016/S0920-5489(01)00062-9

Virtual classroom

Krukowski, A.M. and Kale, I. 2001. Virtual classroom. in: Okamoto, T., Hartley, R. and Klus, J.P. (ed.) proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Aug 06-08, 2001 IEEE . pp. 279-282

Blind source separation based low-complexity carrier phase synchronization

Cetin, E., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2001. Blind source separation based low-complexity carrier phase synchronization. *1st IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology.* Cairo, Egypt 28-30 Dec 2001

Blind adaptive DSP techniques to combat analog front-end non-linearities in digital receivers

Cetin, E., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2001. Blind adaptive DSP techniques to combat analog front-end non-linearities in digital receivers. *2001 IEEE - EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing.* Baltimore, USA 03-06 Jun 2001

Adaptive digital receivers for analog front-end mismatch correction

Cetin, E., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2001. Adaptive digital receivers for analog front-end mismatch correction. in: 2001 IEEE 54th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC 2001 - Fall), 7-11 Oct 2001, Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA USA IEEE .

Adaptive compensation of analog front-end I/Q mismatches in digital receivers

Cetin, E., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 2001. Adaptive compensation of analog front-end I/Q mismatches in digital receivers. in: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2001), 6-9 May 2001, Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre, Darling Harbour, Sydney, Australia USA IEEE .

Narrow-band variable center frequency single-loop and multistage sigma-delta modulators for bandpass signals

Al-Janabi, M., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 1999. Narrow-band variable center frequency single-loop and multistage sigma-delta modulators for bandpass signals. *IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement.* 48 (5), pp. 873-877. doi:10.1109/19.799638

A comparative study of complex multiple-band noise-shaping sigma-delta modulators for multi-tone input signals

Al-Janabi, M., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 1999. A comparative study of complex multiple-band noise-shaping sigma-delta modulators for multi-tone input signals. in: Proceedings of the 42nd Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, vol 1, Las Cruces, New Mexico IEEE . pp. 452-455

Increasing the variability of centre frequency locations in multiple-band sigma-delta modulators via the use of fractional delay filters

Al-Janabi, M., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 1999. Increasing the variability of centre frequency locations in multiple-band sigma-delta modulators via the use of fractional delay filters. in: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Advanced A/D and D/A Conversion Techniques and their Applications, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK, July 1999 IEEE . pp. 30-33

Concurrent noise-shaping for multiple narrow-band single-loop and multi-stage sigma-delta modulators

Al-Janabi, M., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 1999. Concurrent noise-shaping for multiple narrow-band single-loop and multi-stage sigma-delta modulators. in: IWADC '99: 4th International Workshop on ADC Modelling and Testing, September 9 - 10, 1999, Laboratoire IXL-ENSERB, Bordeaux, France ; [proceedings] Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Electricité et de Radioélectricité de Bordeaux. pp. 27-32

Application of fractional delay filters to tune the centre frequency location of single-band sigma-delta modulators

Al-Janabi, M., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 1999. Application of fractional delay filters to tune the centre frequency location of single-band sigma-delta modulators. in: Proceedings of the 42nd Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, vol 1, Las Cruces, New Mexico IEEE . pp. 181-184

An extensible complex fast Fourier transform processor chip for real-time spectrum analysis and measurement

Cetin, E., Morling, R.C.S. and Kale, I. 1998. An extensible complex fast Fourier transform processor chip for real-time spectrum analysis and measurement. *IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement.* 47 (1), pp. 95-99. doi:10.1109/19.728798

An analysis of non-ideal variable centre frequency narrow-band bandpass sigma-delta modulators

Al-Janabi, M., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 1998. An analysis of non-ideal variable centre frequency narrow-band bandpass sigma-delta modulators. in: Proceedings of the 1st IEEE International Symposium on Communication Systems and Digital Signal Processing, vol. 1, 6-8 April 1998, Sheffield, UK IEEE . pp. 289-292

Tunable centre frequency resonator based bandpass Σ-Δ modulators

Al-Janabi, M., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 1998. Tunable centre frequency resonator based bandpass Σ-Δ modulators. in: Proceedings of the Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, vol 2, St. Paul, Minnesota. USA, May 1998 IEEE . pp. 1248-1252

Stability evaluation of tunable resonator-based bandpass sigma-delta modulators via root locus analysis

Al-Janabi, M., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 1998. Stability evaluation of tunable resonator-based bandpass sigma-delta modulators via root locus analysis. in: Proceedings of the 1st IEEE International Symposium on Communication Systems and Digital Signal Processing, vol. 1, 6-8 April 1998, Sheffield, UK IEEE . pp. 441-444

Variable centre frequency resonator based bandpass Σ-Δ modulator

Al-Janabi, M., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 1997. Variable centre frequency resonator based bandpass Σ-Δ modulator. *Electronics Letters.* 33 (24), pp. 2008-2009. doi:10.1049/el:19971370

An integrated 256-point complex FFT processor for real-time spectrum analysis and measurement

Cetin, E., Morling, R.C.S. and Kale, I. 1997. An integrated 256-point complex FFT processor for real-time spectrum analysis and measurement. in: Proceedings of the Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 1997 (IMTC '97), Ottowa, Canada, 19-21 May 1997 Los Alamitos, USA IEEE .

Effective-fourth-order resonator based MASH bandpass sigma-delta modulators

Al-Janabi, M., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 1997. Effective-fourth-order resonator based MASH bandpass sigma-delta modulators. in: Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, vol.3, Munich, Germany, April 1997 IEEE . pp. 2493-2496

Measurement and characterisation of MASH bandpass sigma-delta modulators for direct IF analog-to-digital conversion

Al-Janabi, M., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 1996. Measurement and characterisation of MASH bandpass sigma-delta modulators for direct IF analog-to-digital conversion. in: Proceedings of the IMEKO International Workshop on ADC Modelling and Virtual Instrumentation, Smolenice Castle, Slovakia. 7-9 May 1996 IMEKO. pp. 147-152

MASH structures for bandpass sigma-delta modulators

Al-Janabi, M., Kale, I. and Morling, R.C.S. 1995. MASH structures for bandpass sigma-delta modulators. in: Proceedings of the IEE Colloquium on Oversampling and Sigma-Delta Strategies for Digital Signal Processing, London, 23 November 1995 IEEE . pp. 3/1-3/6

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